Sunday, October 10, 2021

King Udaya II of Anuradhapura

Udaya II was the King of Anuradhapura Kingdom, Sri Lanka from 887 A.D. to 898 A.D. (Ray, 1959) Belonging to the Dynasty of Manawamma, he ruled the country from his capital at Anuradhapura until he was succeeded by Kassapa IV (Ray, 1959).

Reign
The king of Anuradhapura
Udaya II became the ruler of the country after the death of his elder brother King Sena II in 887 A.D. (Ray, 1959). He conferred the Uparaja (or Mahadipada) title to his youngest brother named Kassapa (Kassapa IV) while keeping the Kassapa (Kassapa V), the son of Sena II as Yuvaraja (Ray, 1959). Udaya II married Tissa, a daughter of Uparaja Kassapa and had Sena, another daughter of Uparaja Kassapa, given in marriage to the Yuvaraja Kassapa (Ray, 1959).

Rebellion of Kittaggabodhi
Due to an unknown reason which is not mentioned in chronicles, Kittaggabodhi, the son of Adipada Mahinda (the elder brother of Udaya II. He died in 885 A.D. and therefore couldn't succeed to the throne) rebelled against Udaya II (Ray, 1959). Kittaggabodhi's mother was Kitti, the sister of Kassapa, Sena and Udaya, the three princes of Rohana (Ray, 1959). As Kittaggabodhi understood he couldn't do anything in Anuradhapura, he escaped to Ruhuna when Udaya II trying to capture him (Ray, 1959). Kittaggabodhi killed his maternal uncle (one of the three brothers of Kitti) who was ruling Rohana at the time (Ray, 1959). It is believed that the other two brothers were also murdered by Kittaggabodhi (Ray, 1959).
 
By hearing these developments in Rohana, Udaya II summoned Yuvaraja Kassapa and put it to him that the person who will fit to be as the next ruler in Rohana was his own son, the young Prince Mahinda because of his grandmothers were daughters of the former ruler of Rohana, Kittaggabodhi (Ray, 1959). Yuvaraja Kassapa agreed with that and Udaya II sent young Mahinda under the care of Senapathi Vajiragga with a large army to Rohana to claim the throne (Ray, 1959). Kittaggabodhi who saw the situation is getting worse fled to Malaya but he was captured and taken before Mahinda at his headquarters in Guttasala [(present Buttala) Ray, 1959]. He was finally taken to Anuradhapura where he was imprisoned by Udaya II (Ray, 1959).
 
Death
Udaya II died in 898 A.D. and the Uparaja Kassapa became the king of the country as Kassapa IV (Ray, 1959).

Services & monuments
Religious
As mentioned in chronicles such as Culavamsa, King Udaya II has contributed to the development of Buddhist monasteries in the country as follows (Davis, 2013; Nicholas, 1963); 
 
1) Thuparamaya: The Stupa was covered in gold plates, built a Pasada.
2) Mahapali Alms Hall: Enlarged the hall.
 

Inscriptions
Eighteen inscriptions dated in the reign of King Udaya II have been found from the country (Ranawella, 2001). 
 
1) Anuradhapura-Malvatu Oya pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This has been dated in the 1st regnal year of King Udaya II (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this inscription is to register an immunity granted in respect of a village named Kelegama attached to a hospital situated near Anuradhapura (Ranawella, 2001).
 
2) Ambagahawewa pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 1st regnal year of Udaya II, the purpose of setting up of this record was to register the grant of certain immunities made in respect of a village named Lahasugama owned by a hospital (Ranawella, 2001).
 
3) Anuradhapura Eastern Gate pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This inscription is dated in the 1st regnal year of Udaya II (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this record was to register a land grant made by the king to a hospital situated in Mandiligiri (Ranawella, 2001).
 
4) Mihintale fragmentary pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
As the introductory part of this record is missing, the date of it is unclear (Ranawella, 2001). The object of setting up of this record was to register certain immunities granted by the king in respect of the land where the Mihintale Hospital was located (Ranawella, 2001). 
 
5) Rambeva pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 1st regnal year of Udaya II, the object of this record was to register certain immunities granted by the king in respect of an estate dedicated to a monastery named Sen Senevirad Pirivena built within the Maha Viharaya premises in Anuradhapura by the Commander-in-Chief Kuttha (Ranawella, 2001).
 
6) Iripinniyava pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This inscription is dated in the 1st regnal year of Udaya II and its content is similar to that in the Rambeva pillar inscription (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this record was to register certain immunities granted by the king in respect of a village named Posonavulla in Sulinnarugama dedicated to a monastery named Sen Senevirad Pirivena built by the Commander-in-Chief Kuttha (Ranawella, 2001).
 
7) Kirigalleva pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This has been dated in the 2nd regnal year of Udaya II and it contains a decree issued by the king granting certain immunities in respect of a village named Itnarugama in Agam-kuliya District  (Ranawella, 2001).
 
8) Nidanegama inscription (from Polonnaruwa District)
Dated in the 3rd regnal year of Udaya II, the purpose of this record was to register an immunity granted in respect of a village named Dilimutugama owned by a person named Vaduragbona (Ranawella, 2001). 
 
9) Polonnaruwa-Topawewa pillar inscription (from Polonnaruwa District)
Dated in the 3rd regnal year of Udaya II, this inscription has been set up to register an immunity granted in respect of a village named Girinabima owned by a person named Vaduragbona (Ranawella, 2001).
 
10) Anuradhapura fragmentary pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This inscription is dated in the 3rd regnal year of Udaya II (Ranawella, 2001). It has been set up to register an immunity granted in respect of a village named Kihirimiva-gama owned by a person named Vaduragbona (Ranawella, 2001). The name Vaduragbona is also mentioned in Nidanegama and Polonnaruwa-Topawewa inscriptions.
 
11) Anuradhapura-Halpanu Ela pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 3rd regnal year of Udaya II, the purpose of this record was to register some immunities in respect of an estate or land named Setakora (Ranawella, 2001). 

12) Kadiramulla pillar inscription (from Kurunegala District)
Dated in the 3rd regnal year of Udaya II, it contains a decree issued by the Mahapa of the king in respect of a village named Ritigal (Ranawella, 2001).
 
13) Atdatkadavala pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 3rd regnal year of Udaya II, the purpose of setting up this record is not clear due to the weathering of the pillar (Ranawella, 2001).
 
14) Andiyagala pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
As the relevant part of this record is not preserved, the engraving date of it is unclear (Ranawella, 2001). The object of the inscription was to register the grant of certain immunities to three villages belonging to a monastery named Mahadangiri-vehera (Ranawella, 2001).
 
15) Nissankamalla Council Chamber pillar inscription (from Polonnaruwa District)
Dated in the 4h regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of this record was to register certain immunities granted in respect of some land as a free-hold by a person (the name is not preserved), on condition that he would supply annually one Pela of dried ginger to a hospital founded by a person named Doti Pilakna (Ranawella, 2001).
 
16) Panduwasnuwara pillar inscription no.1 (from Kurunegala District)
This inscription is dated in the 5th regnal year of Udaya II (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this record was to register certain immunities granted in respect of a village named Tera-atula belonging to a monastery named Galgam-pirivena and in respect of ten villages attached to a monastery named Tera-atula-vehera (Ranawella, 2001).
 
17) Panduwasnuwara pillar inscription no.2 (from Kurunegala District)
Dated in the 5th regnal year of Udaya  II, this inscription was discovered near the Panduwasnuwara Palace premises (Ranawella, 2001). The content of this inscription is similar to the Panduwasnuwara pillar inscription no. 1 (Ranawella, 2001).
 
18) Kinihirikanda pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 6th regnal year of Udaya II, the purpose of this record was to register certain immunities granted in respect of a village named Ud-tambagamuwa (Ranawella, 2001).

References
1) Davis, C.E., 2013. Early Buddhist Monasteries in Sri Lanka: A Landscape Approach (Doctoral dissertation, Durham University). p.544.
2) Nicholas, C. W., 1963. Historical topography of ancient and medieval Ceylon. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series (Vol VI). Special Number: Colombo. Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). pp.131-133,139-140.
3) Ranawella, S., 2001. Inscription of Ceylon. Volume V, Part I. Department of Archaeology. ISBN: 955-9159-21-6. pp.93-146.
4) Ray, H.C. (Editor in chief), 1959. History of Ceylon: Vol. I: Part I. Ceylon University Press. Colombo. pp.330-331.

This page was last updated on 10 October 2021
For a complete tourist map follow this link: Lankapradeepa Tourist Map

0 comments:

Post a Comment