Buddhism and Sri Lanka

According to Sri Lankan chronicles, Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka in the 3rd century B.C. by Arhant Mahinda, during the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa.

Sri Lankan Inscriptions

The earliest trace of epigraphy in South Asia is said to be found in Sri Lanka. A piece of pottery, dated to circa the 4th century B.C. has been discovered from the Anuradhapura citadel.

Architecture of Sri Lanka

The architecture of Sri lanka has a long history and shows diversed forms and styles, mainly infuenced by their religions and traditional beliefs.

Sri Lankan Antiquities

Inherited from the past, Sri Lanka has a large number of antiques with cultural and historical significance which reflects the glory of past era.

Visit Sri Lanka

Located in the northern waters of the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka is an island blessed with a large number of attractons which has made the country an ideal destination for the tourism.

Sunday, July 12, 2020

Kumburulena Raja Maha Viharaya

Kumburulena Viharaya
Kumburulena Raja Maha Viharaya (also known as Kumburulena Sri Siddhartha Pirivena) is a Buddhist temple situated in Ridigama in Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka.

History
The history of Kumburulena temple goes back to the early period of Anuradhapura era. Several early-Brahmi inscriptions belonging to the 2nd-1st centuries B.C have been found from the drip-ledged rock caves situated in the temple premises (Paranavitana, 1970). According to the view of Nicholas, Kumburulena was doubtless a part of the Ridi Viharaya (a nearby temple) entourage (Nicholas, 1963). 

The temple name Kumburulena is mentioned in the old Sinhalese text "Nampota" along with other nearby temples including "Segelena" and "Ridi-lena" (Ridi Viharaya).

Inscriptions
Prof. S. Paranavitana has read and published 7 early-Brahmi inscriptions discovered from the site (Paranavitana, 1970). Of them, there are two cave inscriptions by Majjhima, the director of the palanquin bearers of King Gamini Abhaya who, according to scholars, is probably King Vattagamani Abhaya [(89-77 B.C.) Nicholas, 1963].

Kumburulena cave inscriptions of Majjhima
Kumburulena inscriptionsPeriod: 2nd-1st centuries B.C.
Script : Early Brahmi
Language: Old Sinhala
Transcript: Maharajhasha Gamani Abayasa sivika adaka parumaka Majjhima(sha) (le)ne agata anagata (catudisha shagasha)
Translation: The cave of chief Majhima, Director of palanquins of King Gamini Abhaya is given to (the Sangha of all four quarters) present and absent.
References: The information board at the site by the Department of Archaeology and the Ministry of Education.


Kumburulena Viharaya Kumburulena Viharaya Kumburulena Viharaya
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References
1) Nicholas, C. W., 1963. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series (Vol VI). Special Number: Colombo. Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). p.106.
2) Paranavitana, S., 1970. Inscriptions of Ceylon: Volume I: Early Brahmi Inscriptions. Department of Archaeology Ceylon. pp.69-70.

Location Map

This page was last updated on 12 July 2020
For a complete tourist map follow this link: Lankapradeepa Tourist Map

Nampota

Nampota (also called as Vihara-asna) is an ancient Sinhalese text that lists the principle Buddhist temples in Sri Lanka. The author of the text is not known and the work is considered to be a one compiled after the 14th century (Wikramasinghe, 1900). The text was also one of the books used in schools attached to Buddhist temples, which must be committed to memory (Wikramasinghe, 1900).

The list which contains 267 Vihara and Devalas were popular in the past among villagers and is said to be recited along with the Dorakada-asna in the course of a Pirith ceremony (Weerakone, 1991).

Original text
නමො බුද්‍ධාය
සගම, පස්ගම, අරත්තන, මාදන්වල, විල්වල, කඩදොර, මොරපාය, දිඹුල, පුසුල්පිටිය, නියම්ගම්පායස්ථානය, වල්වාසගොඩ, සැලව, අරම, මැදිළිය, දික්පිටිය, බම්පනේ, කාරියගම, දඩගමුව, අළුත් නුවර, පරණ නුවර, මාවෙල, මාකඩවර, හිඟුල, කප්පාගොඩ, පදීදොර, උතුරාවල, අම්බුළුගල, දනගිරිගල, වාගිරිගල, ලෙනගල, අලවතුර, වතුර, මාකුරාව, කවුඩුගම, බිසෝවෙල, දැදිගම, අරන්දොර, දොරවක, මඩබඩවිට, තොටගෙදර, මදුරුපිටිය, අත්තනගල්ල, ඌරාවෙල, ගොඩගෙදර, දොරණෑගොඩ, යටවත්ත, රාගම, මීගමුව, දඹදෙණිය, බෙලිගල, නවගමුව, බමුණුගම, වට්ටාරම, වතුදෙණිය, පුහුරිය, ගල්බඩගම, කොල්ලුර, ඔකඳපළ, උඩපළ, අල්ගම, නවකෙළගමුව, ඇත්කඳ විහාරය, කුරුණෑගල, කුරුවෙණියාගල, ආඳාගල, ඉබ්බාගල, යක්දෙස්සාගල, නාථගම, සංවැල්ල, කඩිකාව, මලගණේ, කබල්ලෑලෙන, නියඳවනේ, නාගල විහාරය, රැස්වෙහෙරුව, තලන්ගමුව, පෙරියකඩුව, දේවගිරි විහාරය, සංගමු විහාරය, උතුරුපවු විහාරය, බුජස්ලෙන, යාම්ලෙන, ජයකඩුලෙන, සැඟෑලෙන, කුඹුරුලෙන, රිදීලෙන, රම්බඩගල්ල, දෙල්විට, විල්ගම, අස්ගිරිය, රුසීගම, ඇම්බැක්ක, මිලිලවාණය, බඹාවිහාරය, රන්ගිරිදඹුල්ල, සීගිරිය, කලාවැව, බළල්ලෑව, අනුරාධපුරයෙහි ශ්‍රී මහා බෝධීන් වහන්සේ, ලෝවා මහා ප්‍රාසාද ස්ථානය, මිරිසවැටි විහාරය, අභයගිරි විහාරය, දෙනා නඛය, භගිරි නඛය, රත්නමාලී චෛත්‍යය, ථූපාරාම වෛත්‍යය, මිහින්තලය, අටසැටලෙන, නිතුපත්පාන, සුරුලුමහමුනියාව, මුන්නේස්සරම, ඇත්තල, මක්කම, මන්නාරම, මාන්තෝට්‍ටම, පොම්පරිප්පුව, මල්විල, දෙමළපට්ටනමෙහි නාගකෝවිල, කදුරුගොඩ විහාරය, තෙලිපොල, මල්ලාගම, මිණිවන්ගොමු විහාරය, තන්නි දිවයින, අග්නි දිවයින, නාග දිවයින, පුවඟු දිවයින, කාර දිවයින, මොල්ලියාවල, තිරිකුණාමලය, විල්ගම් වෙහෙර, තිස්ස මහ වෙහෙර, ඉලන්දගොඩ, කදුරුකෝට්‍ටයෙහි ඇතුබඳය, ලඞ්‍කාතිලකය, ගඩලාදෙණිය, විජයොත්පාය, අභය ගිරි විහාරය, ජේතවන විහාරය, කපිල විහාරය, ඉසිපතනාරාමය, කුසිනාරාමයේ සිටිපිළිම ගෙය, පූර්‍වාරාමය, දක්‍ෂිණාරාමය, පශ්චිමාරාමය, උත්තරාරාමය, සළුමිණිසෑය, සිළුමිණිසෑය, දෙමළ මහ සෑය, පොළොන්නරු විහාරය, සුළුන්නරු විහාරය, සිතුල්පවු විහාරය, ධනංජය විහාරය, කුකුළුවා විහාරය, දඹුලාගල් විහාරය, නකා වෙහෙර, මියුඟුණා වෙහෙර, සොරන්නා තොට, බදුලු වෙහෙර, යුඳඟනා පිටිය, රුහුණුබද කතරගම, උග්ගල් අළුත්නුවර, තඹගමුව, මුල්ගිරිය, ඔවාගිරි විහාරය, දෙව්නුවරෙහි දිව්‍යරාජ භවනය, ඔත්පිළිම ගෙය, ගල්ගණේ, වැලිගම අග්‍රබෝධි විහාරය, පරගොඩ විහාරය, තොටගමු විහාරය, ගලපාත විහාරය, බෝධිමලු විහාරය, වනවාස විහාරය, බෙම්වෙහෙර, බෙම්තොට, කළුතොට, සොරණ, විසිදාගම, කොතලාවල, රඹුක්කන, පානදුරේ දේවාලය, බෙලන්විල, පැපිළියාන, නාවින්න, විජයාරාමය, සුභද්‍රාරාමය, ජයවර්‍ධන කෝට්ටයෙහි ඔත්පිළිම ගෙය, ෂන්මුඛ දේවාලය, කිත්සිරිමෙවන් කැළණිය, රජමහ කැළණිය, විභීෂණ දේවාලය, වැලිවිට, බොල්ලෑගල, සංවැල්ල, සේවාගම, දිසාපති නුගය, කඩුදෙවොල, බෝමිරිය, කෙහෙල්බටුවාව, අතුරුගිරි විහාරය, දෙනගමුව, දෙල්ගමුව, බටුගෙදර, දෙනවක, සබරගමුව, ගලීමලය, සමන්තකූට පර්‍වතය, දිවාගුහාව, බල්ලාහෙල, සිඳගල, කළුගමුව, ගංගාතිලක විහාරය, කුඹල්ඔළුව, අලුදෙණිය, කොටකේදෙණිය, ඉලුපැන්දෙණිය, සේන්දෙණිය, නිග්ගම්මන, අරත්තන, සන්තානාගොඩ, වේගිරිය, ඇම්බැක්ක, වටදාගෙය, දෑලිවෙල, ගඟුල්දෙණිය, උරුලෑදෙණිය, කොටබෝගොඩ, රම්මුංගොඩ, දෙල්දෙණිය, මැණික්දිවෙල, මොනරාගොඩ, කොළුගල, වල්ගම්පාය, දම්තොටවතුර, සියඹලාගොඩ, දොඩම්වල, දියකෙළිනාවල, සූරියගොඩ, කොබ්බෑකඩුව, ගන්නොරුව, කුළුගම්මන, මාගම්මන, අත්තරගම, මැදවෙල, ගල්ලෑල්ල, දොළපීල්ල, අලවතුගොඩ, කොහොන, තිබ්බොටුවාව, ඇඹිල්ල විහාරය, ආලෝක විහාරය, කුරුවාබෝගම්බර, කඩුවෙල, දුනුවිල, ඇඹෙල, නිත්තවෙල, සිරිමල්වත්ත, අමුණුගම, ගංගාරාම විහාරය, සෙංකඩගල, අළුත් විහාරය, පරණ විහාරය, නාගවිමානය, උපෝසථාරාමය, ශ්‍රී දංෂ්‍ට්‍රා දළදා මන්‍දිරය ඇතුළු වූ සියලු විහාර දේවාලයවල අධිගෘහිත දෙවි මහරජාණන් තමනුත්, තමන්ගේ සහ පිරිවර දෙවියනුත් සන්දෘෂ්‍ට සම්‍භක්‍ත දෙවියනුත්, උපවෙනෙහි දෙවියනුත්, නොහැර කැඳවාගෙන මඞ්‍ගල සූත්‍රාදි බණ අසනු පිණිස ඊම සමග මහා සඞ්‍ඝයා වහන්සේට අභිමත දෝ, අභිමත දෝ, අභිමත දෝ! අහිමතයි, අභිමතයි, අහිමතයි! සමග මහා සඞ්‍ඝයා වහන්සේ සඟ ව වදාළ මෙහෙවර සඞ්‍ඝාණත්‍තිය නූගුළුවා ඉයැ යුතු.
Identification of temples
This is an incomplete list prepared by "Lanka Pradeepa".

No. Name Present site (or probable)
1 සගම (Sagama)
2 පස්ගම (Pasgama)
3 අරත්තන (Arattana)
4 මාදන්වල (Madanwala)
5 විල්වල (Wilwala)
6 කඩදොර (Kadadora)
7 මොරපාය (Morapaya)
8 දිඹුල (Dimbula)
9 පුසුල්පිටිය (Pusulpitiya)
10 නියම්ගම්පායස්ථානය
 (Niyamgampayastanaya)
Niyamgampaya Raja Maha Viharaya, Kandy
11 වල්වාසගොඩ (Valvasagoda)
12 සැලව (Selawa)
13 අරම (Arama)
14 මැදිළිය (Mediliya)
15 දික්පිටිය (Dikpitiya)
16 බම්පනේ (Bampane)
17 කාරියගම (Kariyagama)
18 දඩගමුව (Dadagamuwa)
19 අළුත් නුවර (Alut-nuwara)
20 පරණ නුවර (Parana-nuwara)
21 මාවෙල (Mawela)
22 මාකඩවර (Makadawara)
23 හිඟුල (Hingula)
24 කප්පාගොඩ (Kappagoda)
25 පදීදොර (Padeedora)
26 උතුරාවල (Uturawala)
27 අම්බුළුගල (Ambulugala)
28 දනගිරිගල (Danagirigala)
29 වාගිරිගල (Vagirigala)
30 ලෙනගල (Lenagala)
31 අලවතුර (Alavatura)
32 වතුර (Vatura)
33 මාකුරාව (Makurawa)
34 කවුඩුගම (Kawdugama)
35 බිසෝවෙල (Bisowela)
36 දැදිගම (Dedigama)
37 අරන්දොර (Arandora)
38 දොරවක (Dorawaka)
39 මඩබඩවිට (Madabadawita)
40 තොටගෙදර (Totagedara)
41 මදුරුපිටිය (Madurupitiya)
42 අත්තනගල්ල (Attanagalla)
43 ඌරාවෙල (Urawela)
44 ගොඩගෙදර (Godagedara)
45 දොරණෑගොඩ (Doranegoda)
46 යටවත්ත (Yatawatta) Yatawatta Purana Viharaya, Gampaha
47 රාගම (Ragama)
48 මීගමුව (Meegamuwa)
49 දඹදෙණිය (Dambadeniya)
50 බෙලිගල (Beligala)
51 නවගමුව (Nawagamuwa)
52 බමුණුගම (Bamunugama)
53 වට්ටාරම (Vattarama)
54 වතුදෙණිය (Watudeniya)
55 පුහුරිය (Puhuriya)
56 ගල්බඩගම (Galbadagama)
57 කොල්ලුර (Kollura)
58 ඔකඳපළ (Okandapala)
59 උඩපළ (Udapala)
60 අල්ගම (Algama)
61 නවකෙළගමුව (Nawakelagamuwa)
62 ඇත්කඳ විහාරය
(Athkanda Viharaya)
Athkanda Raja Maha Viharaya, Kurunegala
63 කුරුණෑගල (Kurunegala)
64 කුරුවෙණියාගල (Kuruweniyagala)
65 ආඳාගල (Andagala)
66 ඉබ්බාගල (Ibbagala)
67 යක්දෙස්සාගල (Yakdessagala)
68 නාථගම (Nathagama)
69 සංවැල්ල (Sanwella)
70 කඩිකාව (Kadikawa)
71 මලගණේ (Malagane)
72 කබල්ලෑලෙන (Kaballelena)
73 නියඳවනේ (Niyandawane)
74 නාගල විහාරය (Nagala Viharaya)
75 රැස්වෙහෙරුව (Reseveheruwa)
76 තලන්ගමුව (Thalangamuwa)
77 පෙරියකඩුව (Periyakaduwa)
78 දේවගිරි විහාරය (Devagiri Viharaya)
79 සංගමු විහාරය (Sangamu Viharaya)
80 උතුරුපවු විහාරය
(Uturupaw Viharaya)

81 බුජස්ලෙන (Bujaslena)
82 යාම්ලෙන (Yamlena)
83 ජයකඩුලෙන (Jayakadulena)
84 සැඟෑලෙන (Sengelena)
85 කුඹුරුලෙන (Kumburulena) Kumburulena Viharaya, Kurunegala
86 රිදීලෙන (Rideelena)
87 රම්බඩගල්ල (Rambadagalla)
88 දෙල්විට (Delwita)
89 විල්ගම (Wilgama)
90 අස්ගිරිය (Asgiriya)
91 රුසීගම (Ruseegama)
92 ඇම්බැක්ක (Embekka)
93 මිලිලවාණය (Mililawanaya)
94 බඹාවිහාරය (Bamba-viharaya)
95 රන්ගිරිදඹුල්ල (Rangiri-dambulla) Dambulla Raja Maha Viharaya, Matale
96 සීගිරිය (Sigiriya)
97 කලාවැව (Kalawewa)
98 බළල්ලෑව (Balallewa)
99 අනුරාධපුරයෙහි ශ්‍රී මහා බෝධීන් වහන්සේ
(Anuradhapurayehi Sri Maha Bodhin Vahanse)
Sri Maha Bodhiya, Anuradhapura
100 ලෝවා මහා ප්‍රාසාද ස්ථානය
(Lova-maha-prasada Stanaya)
Lovamahapaya, Anuradhapura
101 මිරිසවැටි විහාරය (Mirisaweti Viharaya) Mirisawetiya, Anuradhapura
102 අභයගිරි විහාරය (Abhyagiri Viharaya)
103 දෙනා නඛය (Dena-nakhaya)
104 භගිරි නඛය (Bhagiri-nakhaya)
105 රත්නමාලී චෛත්‍යය
(Ratnamali Cheitya)
Ruwanweliseya, Anuradhapura
106 ථූපාරාම චෛත්‍යය (Thuparama Cheitya) Thuparamaya, Anuradhapura
107 මිහින්තලය (Mihintalaya) Mihintale Monastery, Anurdhapura
108 අටසැටලෙන (Atasetalena) Ata Seta Len, Anurdhapura
109 නිතුපත්පාන (Nitupatpana)
110 සුරුලුමහමුනියාව (Surulumahamuniyawa)
111 මුන්නේස්සරම (Munnessarama)
112 ඇත්තල (Eththala)
113 මක්කම (Makkama)
114 මන්නාරම (Mannarama)
115 මාන්තෝට්‍ටම (Manthottama)
116 පොම්පරිප්පුව (Pomparippuwa)
117 මල්විල (Malwila)
118 දෙමළපට්ටනමෙහි නාගකෝවිල
(Demalapattanamehi Naga-kovila)
Nagar Kovil in Vadamarachchi, Jaffna
119 කදුරුගොඩ විහාරය (Kadurugoda Viharaya) Kadurugoda Viharaya, Jaffna
120 තෙලිපොල (Telipola) Present Telippalai, Jaffna
121 මල්ලාගම (Mallagama) Present Mallakam, Jaffna
122 මිණිවන්ගොමු විහාරය
(Miniwangomu Viharaya)
Present Vimanakamam (in Valikamam), Jaffna
123 තන්නි දිවයින (Thanni Divaina) Present Tanativu (Kayts), Jaffna
124 අග්නි දිවයින (Agni Divaina)
125 නාග දිවයින (Naga Divaina) Present Nainativu, Jaffna
126 පුවඟු දිවයින (Puvangu Divaina) Present Punkudutivu, Jaffna
127 කාර දිවයින (Kara Divaina) Present Karativu, Jaffna
128 මොල්ලියාවල (Molliyawala)
129 තිරිකුණාමලය (Tirikunamalaya)
130 විල්ගම් වෙහෙර (Vilgam Vehera)
131 තිස්ස මහ වෙහෙර
(Tissa-maha-vehera)

132 ඉලන්දගොඩ (Ilandagoda)
133 කදුරුකෝට්‍ටයෙහි ඇතුබඳය
(Kadurukottayehi Athubandaya)

134 ලඞ්‍කාතිලකය (Lankatilakaya) Lankatilaka Viharaya, Kandy
135 ගඩලාදෙණිය (Gadaladeniya) Gadaladeniya Viharaya, Kandy
136 විජයොත්පාය (Vijayothpaya)
137 අභයගිරි විහාරය (Abayagiri Viharaya)
138 ජේතවන විහාරය (Jetavana Viharaya)
139 කපිල විහාරය (Kapila Viharaya)
140 ඉසිපතනාරාමය (Isipatanaramaya)
141 කුසිනාරාමයේ සිටිපිළිම ගෙය
(Kusinaramaye-siti-pilima-geya)

142 පූර්‍වාරාමය (Purvaramaya)
143 දක්‍ෂිණාරාමය (Dakshinaramaya)
144 පශ්චිමාරාමය (Pashchimaramaya)
145 උත්තරාරාමය (Uttararamaya)
146 සළුමිණිසෑය (Saluminiseya)
147 සිළුමිණිසෑය (Siluminiseya)
148 දෙමළ මහ සෑය (Demala-maha-seya)
149 පොළොන්නරු විහාරය
(Polonnaru Viharaya)

150 සුළුන්නරු විහාරය
(Sulunnaru Viharaya)

151 සිතුල්පවු විහාරය (Sithulpaw Viharaya)
152 ධනංජය විහාරය
(Dananjaya Viharaya)

153 කුකුළුවා විහාරය (Kukuluwa Viharaya)
154 දඹුලාගල් විහාරය
(Dambulagal Viharaya)

155 නකා වෙහෙර (Naka Vehera)
156 මියුඟුණා වෙහෙර (Miyinguna Vehera)
157 සොරන්නා තොට (Soranna-tota)
158 බදුලු වෙහෙර (Badulu Vehera)
159 යුඳඟනා පිටිය (Yudagana-pitiya)
160 රුහුණුබද කතරගම (Ruhunubada Kataragama)
161 උග්ගල් අළුත්නුවර (Uggal Alutnuwara)
162 තඹගමුව (Tambagamuwa)
163 මුල්ගිරිය (Mulgiriya)
164 ඔවාගිරි විහාරය (Ovagiri Viharaya)
165 දෙව්නුවරෙහි දිව්‍යරාජ භවනය
(Devnuwarehi Diwyaraja Bhavanaya)

166 ඔත්පිළිම ගෙය (Oth-pilima-geya)
167 ගල්ගණේ (Galgane)
168 වැලිගම අග්‍රබෝධි විහාරය
(Weligama Agrabodhi Viharaya)

169 පරගොඩ විහාරය (Paragoda Viharaya)
170 තොටගමු විහාරය
(Thotagamu Viharaya)

171 ගලපාත විහාරය (Galapata Viharaya)
172 බෝධිමලු විහාරය
(Bodhimalu Viharaya)

173 වනවාස විහාරය (Vanavasa Viharaya)
174 බෙම්වෙහෙර (Bemvehera)
175 බෙම්තොට (Bemtota)
176 කළුතොට (Kalotota)
177 සොරණ (Sorana)
178 විසිදාගම (Visidagama)
179 කොතලාවල (Kotalawala)
180 රඹුක්කන (Rambukkana)
181 පානදුරේ දේවාලය (Panadure devalaya)
182 බෙලන්විල (Belanwila)
183 පැපිළියාන (Pepiliyana)
184 නාවින්න (Navinna)
185 විජයාරාමය (Vijayaramaya)
186 සුභද්‍රාරාමය (Subhadraramaya)
187 ජයවර්‍ධන කෝට්ටයෙහි ඔත්පිළිම ගෙය
(Jayawardana Kottayehi Oth-pilima-geya)
Image house of Kotte Raja Maha Viharaya, Colombo
188 ෂන්මුඛ දේවාලය
(Shanmukha Devalaya)
Devalaya situated in the premises of Kotte Raja Maha Viharaya, Colombo
189 කිත්සිරිමෙවන් කැළණිය
(Kitsirimevan Kelaniya)
Kelaniya Kitsirimevan Viharaya, Colombo
190 රජමහ කැළණිය
(Raja-maha Kelaniya)
Kelaniya Raja Maha Viharaya, Gampaha
191 විභීෂණ දේවාලය (Vibishana Devalaya)
192 වැලිවිට (Weliwita)
193 බොල්ලෑගල (Bollegala)
194 සංවැල්ල (Sanwella)
195 සේවාගම (Sewagama)
196 දිසාපති නුගය (Disapati Nugaya)
197 කඩුදෙවොල (Kadu Devola)
198 බෝමිරිය (Bomiriya)
199 කෙහෙල්බටුවාව (Kehelbatuwawa)
200 අතුරුගිරි විහාරය (Athurugiri Viharaya)
201 දෙනගමුව (Denagamuwa)
202 දෙල්ගමුව (Delgamuwa)
203 බටුගෙදර (Batugedara)
204 දෙනවක (Denawaka)
205 සබරගමුව (Sabaragamuwa)
206 ගලීමලය (Galeemalaya)
207 සමන්තකූට පර්‍වතය
(Samantakuta Parvataya)
Sri Pada, Ratnapura
208 දිවාගුහාව (Diva-guhawa)
209 බල්ලාහෙල (Ballahela)
210 සිඳගල (Sindagala)
211 කළුගමුව (Kalugamuwa)
212 ගංගාතිලක විහාරය
(Gangatilaka Viharaya)

213 කුඹල්ඔළුව (Kumbal-oluwa)
214 අලුදෙණිය (Aludeniya)
215 කොටකේදෙණිය (Kotakedeniya)
216 ඉලුපැන්දෙණිය (Ilupendeniya)
217 සේන්දෙණිය (Sendeniya)
218 නිග්ගම්මන (Niggammana)
219 අරත්තන (Arattana)
220 සන්තානාගොඩ (Santanagoda)
221 වේගිරිය (Vegiriya)
222 ඇම්බැක්ක (Embekka)
223 වටදාගෙය (Vatadageya)
224 දෑලිවෙල (Deliwela)
225 ගඟුල්දෙණිය (Ganguldeniya)
226 උරුලෑදෙණිය (Uruledeniya)
227 කොටබෝගොඩ (Kotabogoda)
228 රම්මුංගොඩ (Rammungoda)
229 දෙල්දෙණිය (Deldeniya)
230 මැණික්දිවෙල (Menikdiwela)
231 මොනරාගොඩ (Monaragoda)
232 කොළුගල (Kolugala)
233 වල්ගම්පාය (Valgampaya)
234 දම්තොටවතුර (Damtotavathura)
235 සියඹලාගොඩ (Siyambalagoda)
236 දොඩම්වල (Dodamwala)
237 දියකෙළිනාවල (Diyakelinawala)
238 සූරියගොඩ (Suriyagoda)
239 කොබ්බෑකඩුව (Kobbekaduwa)
240 ගන්නොරුව (Gannoruwa)
241 කුළුගම්මන (Kulugammana)
242 මාගම්මන(Magammana)
243 අත්තරගම (Attaragama)
244 මැදවෙල (Medawela)
245 ගල්ලෑල්ල (Gallella)
246 දොළපීල්ල (Dolapeella)
247 අලවතුගොඩ (Alavatugoda)
248 කොහොන (Kohona)
249 තිබ්බොටුවාව (Tibbotuwawa)
250 ඇඹිල්ල විහාරය (Embilla Viharaya)
251 ආලෝක විහාරය (Aloka Viharaya)
252 කුරුවාබෝගම්බර (Kuruwabogambara)
253 කඩුවෙල (Kaduwela)
254 දුනුවිල (Dunuwila)
255 ඇඹෙල (Ambela)
256 නිත්තවෙල (Nittawela)
257 සිරිමල්වත්ත (Sirimalwatta)
258 අමුණුගම (Amunugama)
259 ගංගාරාම විහාරය (Gangarama Viharaya)
260 සෙංකඩගල (Senkadagala)
261 අළුත් විහාරය (Alut-viharaya)
262 පරණ විහාරය (Parana-viharaya)
263 නාගවිමානය (Naga Vimanaya)
264 උපෝසථාරාමය (Uposataramaya)
265 ශ්‍රී දංෂ්‍ට්‍රා දළදා මන්‍දිරය
(Sri Danshtra Dalada Mandiraya)


References
1) Weerakone, T.B., 1991. The study of place names in Sri Lanka. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka, New Series, Vol. 36 (1991/1992). pp.28-95.
2) Wikramasinghe, D.M.D.Z., 1900. Catalogue of the Sinhalese Manuscripts in the British Museum: London. p.41.
This page was last updated on 12 July 2020
For a complete tourist map follow this link: Lankapradeepa Tourist Map

Saturday, July 11, 2020

Pettigala, Kandy

Pettigala
Pettigala is a moderately tall mountain situated in Teldeniya in Kandy District, Sri Lanka.

Presently, this site has become a place for hiking. The trail which runs to the mountain is fallen through the ancient Buddhist temple, Bambaragala Raja Maha Viharaya. The journey usually takes about 30-45 mins to reach the top of the rock. 

A picturesque view of the Victoria reservoir and many highlands can be obtained from the top of the rock.

Attribution
1) Pettigala mountain by Isuru91 is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Location Map

This page was last updated on 11 July 2020
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Sembuwatta Lake

Sembuwatta Lake
Sembuwatta Lake is an artificial lake situated in Matale District, Sri Lanka. Presently, the site is popular among the tourists for its beautiful landscape.

The lake bounded by pine forest and tea plantation is the main attraction of the site. However, tourists are not allowed for bathing in the lake. Instead that, a separate bathing pool is available for the tourists. Bird watching, mountain climbing, kids play, zip line, boat ride, camping etc. are the some of leisure activities available at the site.

Sembuwatta Lake Sembuwatta Lake
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Location Map

This page was last updated on 11 July 2020
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Rangala Natural Pool

Rangala Natural Pool
Rangala Natural Pool is a popular natural pool with a small waterfall situated in Kandy District, Sri Lanka. The pool is created by the Kotaganga, a stream originating from Knuckles mountain range.

Presently, this place is famous among the local tourists as a bathing place but several deaths have been reported so far at this pool. The depth of the pool near the waterfall is about 30 ft deep and authorities have not recommended that part for a safe bath. Also, as advised, the water flow and the level can change rapidly based on the rainfall on the catchment regions.

A picturesque view of the pool can be obtained from a narrow bridge located near the pool. Safer and shallow bathing places are available towards the lower part of the pool.




Attribution
1) Rangala Natural Pool by Lahiru Bandara is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Location Map

This page was last updated on 11 July 2020
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Gurudeniya Old Arch Bridge

Gurudeniya Old Arch Bridge
Gurudeniya Old Arch Bridge (also known as Keisho Bridge) is located in Gurudeniya on Old Kandy-road in Kandy District, Sri Lanka.

The bridge which is presently owned by the Road development Authority has been constructed in 1847 over the Thalatu Oya river (Rajapakse, 2016).  It is a two-arch bridge constructed with the support of natural rock besides. The bridge is 49 m in length and 9.55 m in width (Rajapakse, 2016). The two arches are equal in dimensions and have been built with bricks and lime plasters (Rajapakse, 2016). The road of the bridge is built of stones.

Attribution
1) Haragama bridge by Mhmshabeer is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

References
1) Rajapakse, S., 2016. Pauranika Sthana Ha Smaraka: Mahanuwara Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Archaeological Department of Sri Lanka. ISBN:955-9159-34-8. p.36.

Location Map

This page was last updated on 11 July 2020
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Metiyagane Mayurawathi Raja Maha Viharaya

Metiyagane Mayurawathi Raja Maha Viharaya
Mayurawathi Raja Maha Viharaya is a Buddhist temple located in the village of Metiyagane in Kurunagala District, Sri Lanka.

History
The history of Mayurawathi temple, according to the locals, goes back to the Anuradhapura period (Anuradha & Kumari, 2015). It is believed that this temple was established in the invitation of Mayurawathi Deviya, the daughter of King Devanampiyatissa [(307-267 A.D.) Anuradha & Kumari, 2015]. It is also said that this was the temple where Buddhaputra Sthavira of Mayurapada Pirivena, the author of the Pujavaliya (a Sinhalese classic written in the 13th century), lived (Anuradha & Kumari, 2015). However, a rock inscription found in-situ reveals that this temple was known among the people as "Mati Vihara" in the 1st century A.D.

Matiyagane rock inscription
Matiyagane rock inscription
Period : 1st century A.D.
Script  : Later Brahmi
Language : Old Sinhala
Content   : This inscription records about the donation of two types of taxes from the Kadahaka tank and from the place known as Silaviya to the resident monks of the Mati Vihara (Matiyagane Vihara).
Reference: The information board at the site by the Department of Archaeology and the Ministry of National Heritage.

The temple is said to be renovated by several rulers. The name of the temple is mentioned in a copper plate issued in 1429 by King Parakramabahu VI (1412-1467 A.D.) of Kotte Kingdom. A silver plate grant issued in 1675 by King Rajasinghe II (1635-1687 A.D.) of Kandyan Kingdom reveals that the king had added a new section called Uda Maluwa Viharaya to the temple and bestowed it to a Buddhist monk named Gunadahe Dammadassi Thera of Asgiri Viharaya.

The temple
A number of rock caves with drip-ledges used by meditating monks in ancient times are found in the temple premises. The main image house of the temple is situated inside a large rock cave located on a high terrace. Inside the image house, a small Stupa and three statues of Buddha in Samadhi, reclining, and standing postures are found. 

The small Stupa in the image house
Small Stupas are believed to have been built in Sri Lankan temples during the 5-10 centuries A.D. (Anuradha & Kumari, 2015). The small Stupa in the image house of Mayurawathi temple is said to have been erected to commemorate Mayurawathi Deviya whose jewelry, according to folklore, have been enshrined inside it (Anuradha & Kumari, 2015). However, the dome of the Stupa has been destroyed by treasure hunters in the recent past in search of treasures hidden inside it.

A protected site
The rock with the inscription, ancient image house, and drip-ledged caves located in Metiyagane Mayurawathi Raja Maha Vihara premises in the Divisional Secretary’s Division, Narammala are archaeological protected monuments, declared by a government Gazette notification published on 27 July 2001.

Metiyagane Mayurawathi temple Metiyagane Mayurawathi Vihara Metiyagane Viharaya
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References
1) Anuradha, R.K.S.; Kumari, A.S., 2015. Pauranika Sthana Saha Smaraka: Kurunegala Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 955-9159-37-2. pp.25-26.
2) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. no: 1195. 27 July 2001.

Location Map

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Sunday, June 28, 2020

Fa-Hien Lena Cave

Pahiyangala
Fa Hien Cave (also known as Fa-Hien Lena Cave, Pahiyangala Lena, Fahiyanlena) is a prehistoric cave situated in Yatagampitiya village in Bulathsinhala, Kalutara District, Sri Lanka. Named after the Chinese Buddhist monk "Fa Hien", the cave is considered a very crucial locale for understanding the physical and cultural evolution of modern humans in Asia. The cave is also the site of the earliest fossil appearance of Homo sapiens in South Asia (Langley et al., 2020; Wedage et al., 2019).

The cave
Fa Hien cave can accommodate about 3 000 persons and therefore is considered as one of the largest caves in Sri Lanka (Abeyawardana, 2002). Located about 130 m above mean sea level (Wedage et al., 2019), the cave is about 150 ft high, 175 ft wide and has a length of 282 ft (Abeyawardana, 2002).

Excavations
The cave was first investigated in 1968 by the then Assistant Commissioner of Archaeology, S. U. Deraniyagala, when it was being used as a Buddhist cave temple (Perera, 2014; Perera, 2017). In 1986, W. H. Wijeyapala, the then Assistant Commissioner of the Archaeological Department, commenced excavations at the site at two locations; one was in the main large cave (Shelter A) and the other in a smaller rock shelter (Shelter B) located approximately 20 m east of the Shelter A (Perera, 2017; Wedage et al., 2019). In association with Sri Lanka's Department of Archaeology, the eminent scholar Prof. Kenneth A. R. Kennedy of Cornell University in the USA involved in these studies (Abeyawardana, 2002)

More scientific excavations were done at the site by various local and foreign scholars later.

Findings
Human skeletons, microlith stone tools and the remains of hunted animals have been found from Fa Hien cave deposited in layers ranging from c. 38 000 to 4 500 cal BP (Perera, 2014). Human skeletal remains of over 9 individuals, dated to ca. 38 000, 37 000, 29 000, 8 000, 7 700, 5 500 BP, have been unearthed from the site (Deraniyagala, 2007). These human remains represent Sri Lanka's Mesolithic human, popularly termed "Balangoda Man" (Deraniyagala, 2007).

Excavations in 1986, and in 2009-2012 have revealed a secure sequence of human habitation deposits dating from c. 48 046 to 4 422 years ago, including reports of South Asia’s oldest habitation deposit associated with anatomically modern humans (Perera, 2017). In 2012, a complete human skeleton believed to be thousands of years old was discovered from Fa Hien cave and it was the first time that a full human skeleton as old as this has been found from the country.

The microlith tools discovered are mainly made of quartz and bones (Langley et al., 2020; Wedage et al., 2019). Evidence of the hunted animals has also been found from the site. Although a wide range of animals have been consumed by the inhabitants of Fa Hien cave, most of them were small mammals such as monkeys and squirrels. Remains of larger mammals such as Sambar and pigs have also been recorded. Evidence is there to prove that the early humans had brought salt here in about 20 000 years ago from coastal areas located over 100 km away.

Beads of marine shells, shark vertebrae, and shark teeth are also among the recorded findings of Fa Hien cave. Shell necklaces discovered from the site indicate that personal adornment was practiced by Balangoda Man from thousands of years ago.

In 2020, a research carried out by a group of foreign and local scholars, showed that occupants of the Fa Hien cave had developed bow and arrow technology 48 000 BP (Langley et al., 2020). This represents the earliest usage of this technology outside of Africa to date.

Pahiyangala cave temple
Local people connect the history of this site to an exploring Chinese Buddhist monk named Faxian (or Fa-Hien/ Fa Hsien) who visited Sri Lanka during the period of King Mahanama in the 5th century A.D. (Abeyawardana, 2002). It is believed that he stayed in this place for some time during his journey on the island. However, no evidence has been found from this site to prove this local belief.

After the discovery of the cave over 200 years ago, the site gradually became a Buddhist shrine of worship (Abeyawardana, 2002). 

Chinese aids
During the 1980s, the area including the Pahiyangala was developed with the aids received from China.

References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2002. Heritage of Sabaragamuwa: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Sabaragamuwa Development Bank and The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 955-575-077-7. p.136.
2) Deraniyagala, S.U., 2007. The prehistory and protohistory of Sri Lanka. Central Cultural Fund. pp.57,60.
3) Langley, M.C., Amano, N., Wedage, O., Deraniyagala, S., Pathmalal, M.M., Perera, N., Boivin, N., Petraglia, M.D. and Roberts, P., 2020. Bows and arrows and complex symbolic displays 48,000 years ago in the South Asian tropics. Science Advances, 6(24), p.eaba3831.
4) Perera, H.N., 2014. Prehistoric Sri Lanka. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka, pp.23-41.
5) Perera, N., 2017. Fa Hien-Lena Prehistoric Cave – Earliest Modern Humans From South Asia. (From an article published on Archaeology.lk, on 20 December 2017).
6) Wedage, O., Picin, A., Blinkhorn, J., Douka, K., Deraniyagala, S., Kourampas, N., et al. (2019) Microliths in the South Asian rainforest ~45-4 ka: New insights from Fa-Hien Lena Cave, Sri Lanka. PLoS ONE 14(10):e0222606.

Location Map

This page was last updated on 28 June 2020
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Baddhasima Prasada, Polonnaruwa

Baddhasima Prasada
Baddhasima Prasada (Baddaseema Prasada) is an Uposathaghara (the chapter house) situated in the ancient city of Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. This is considered as the largest Uposathaghara in Sri Lanka.

History
Baddhasima Prasada is the Uposathaghara (the chapter house) belongs to the Alahana Pirivena complex (Jayasuriya, 2016). This was used by Buddhist monks for the ceremony of confession and for the performance of various Sangha-Kammas. It is located on the highest terrace of the Alahana Pirivena complex (Jayasuriya, 2016). 

According to the chronicle Mahawamsa, this was a twelve storied building built by King Parakramabahu the Great (1153-1186 A.D.) for the ecclesiastical activities of the Buddhist monks (Wikramagamage, 2004). 

The building
Baddhasima Prasada
Remaining pillars, brick works, and flight of steps suggest that this was originally a storied building (Jayasuriya, 2016). The building consists of four terraces, viz; the uppermost terrace, the 2nd terrace, the 3rd terrace, and the lower terrace. In the uppermost terrace, a central platform, four stone pedestals, and Seema stones (boundary stones) are identified. The central platform is said to be used to place the relic casket while reading the Pratimoksha (code of disciplines) by four Buddhist monks seated on the stone pedestals facing the cardinal directions.

Two funerary Stupas which are believed to be the monuments of a king and queen are found built on a raised platform near to the Baddhasima Prasada building (Jayasuriya, 2016).

Baddhasima Prasada Baddhasima Prasada Baddhasima Prasada
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References
1) Jayasuriya, E., 2016. A guide to the Cultural Triangle of Sri Lanka. Central Cultural Fund. ISBN: 978-955-613-312-7. pp.82-83.
2) Wikramagamage, C., 2004. Heritage of Rajarata: Major natural, cultural, and historic sites. Colombo. Central Bank of Sri Lanka. p.218. 

Location Map

This page was last updated on 28 June 2020
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Saturday, June 27, 2020

Sri Sugatharama Viharaya, Thibbotugoda

Sugatharama Viharaya
Sri Sugatharama Viharaya is a Buddhist temple situated in the village of Thibbotugoda in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka.

Image house
Thibbotugoda Sugatharamaya
The image house is the main attraction of this temple with an archaeological significance. It consists of an inner shrine and a narrow, open ambulatory around it.

The entrance of the image house is adorned with a Makara Thorana (the Dragon arch) and the figures of guards and deities. A seated Buddha statue accompanied by two images of Sariputta (left) and Moggallana (right), the two chief disciples of Gautama Buddha, are found inside the inner shrine. Two standing statues of Vishnu and Kataragama with Makara Thoranas are also found facing each other at both left and right walls. The inside walls have been decorated with Buddhist murals belonging to the Kandyan tradition. The outer walls of the inner shrine contain no sculptures or murals.

The image house has been conserved by the Department of Archaeology on 23 July 2012.

A protected site
The image house situated in the Sri Sugatharama Vihara premises in 261 B, Thibbotugoda Grama Niladhari Wasama of the Gampaha Divisional Secretary’s Division is an archaeological protected monument, declared by a government gazette notification published on 22 November 2002.

Sri Sugatharama Viharaya, Thibbotugoda Sri Sugatharama Viharaya, Thibbotugoda
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References
1) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1264. 22 November 2002.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 27 June 2020
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