Tuesday, December 25, 2018

Veheragala Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva Statue, Colombo National Museum

Veheragala Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva Statue, Colombo National Museum
The Veheragala Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva Statue is currently on display in the Colombo National Museum, Sri Lanka (Prematilaka & Hewage, 2018). The statue is considered one of the masterpiece sculptures of the world (Chandrajeewa, 2016; Prematilaka & Hewage, 2018).

Discovery
The statue was discovered in 1968 from the premises of Sri Sangabodhi Vihara in Veheragala in Anuradhapura District by the then chief incumbent of the temple, Mahamessalave Rathanapala Thera (Chandrajeewa, 2016). It was later brought to the present location for conservation.

This statue along with some other 51 bronzes was taken away from the Colombo Museum in 1991 and was on display till 1993 in several museums in the world including France, Switzerland, United States, and Australia (Chandrajeewa, 2016).

Avalokiteshvara
This solid-cast gilt bronze represents Avalokiteshvara, a Mahayana Bodhisattva who is the emanation of the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha. These figures (Avalokiteshvara) are identified by the Dhyani Buddha on the head-dress or by similar images with the emblem. The statue has been variously dated by scholars between the 6th and the 10th century A.D. (Chandrajeewa, 2016). Senarath Paranavitana has dated this to the 6th century while others have dated it to the 8th-10th century (Chandrajeewa, 2016; Holt, 1991).

Statue
The statue is 49.8 cm in height and made from bronze using the lost-wax process (Chandrajeewa, 2016). It is in a combination of the attitudes of Rajaleelasana (royal easy posture) and Lalithasana (Chandrajeewa, 2016). The right foot of the statue is bent and kept cross-wise over the seat while the left foot is kept down. The right hand is resting over the right thigh and depicts the Vitarka Mudra [(Mudra of argumentation) Wikramagamage, 1990]. The left hand is kept on the seat outside the left thigh causing the upper body to slanted towards the right. The cloth band on the left shoulder and the ripples on the belly are shown in their natural form. The raiment covering the lower body is short and a portion of this cloth is falling in the front below the seat (Wikramagamage, 1990). The hair is arranged in the form of Jata-makuta (Wikramagamage, 2004) and several loosed locks are fallen on to the shoulders. The hair-dress is garnished with stones but bears an empty niche in the front (Chandrajeewa, 2016). This empty niche, according to scholars, had been used to place a miniature figure of Amitabha Buddha (Chandrajeewa, 2016; Wikramagamage, 1990).

References
1) Chandrajeewa, S., 2016. Veragala Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva: an Inquiry into its Style & Period (The Mahayana Buddhist Bronze Statue in Colombo Museum). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka, pp.69-106.
Holt, J.C., 1991. Buddha in the crown: Avalokitesvara in the Buddhist traditions of Sri Lanka. Oxford University Press. p.86.
2) Prematilaka, L., Hewage, R., 2018. A guide to the National Museum, Colombo: Department of National Museum. ISBN: 978-955-578-035-3. p.12.
3) Wikramagamage, C., 1990. [Wijesekara, N. (Editor in chief)] Section II: 500-100 A.D. Archaeological Department Centenary (1890-1990): Commemorative Series: Vol. IV: Sculpture. p.68
4) Wikramagamage, C., 2004. Heritage of Rajarata: Major natural, cultural and historic sites: Colombo. Central Bank of Sri Lanka. p.85.

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This page was last updated on 14 January 2021
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