Buddhism and Sri Lanka

According to Sri Lankan chronicles, Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka in the 3rd century B.C. by Arhant Mahinda, during the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa.

Sri Lankan Inscriptions

The earliest trace of epigraphy in South Asia is said to be found in Sri Lanka. A piece of pottery, dated to circa the 4th century B.C. has been discovered from the Anuradhapura citadel.

Architecture of Sri Lanka

The architecture of Sri lanka has a long history and shows diversed forms and styles, mainly infuenced by their religions and traditional beliefs.

Sri Lankan Antiquities

Inherited from the past, Sri Lanka has a large number of antiques with cultural and historical significance which reflects the glory of past era.

Visit Sri Lanka

Located in the northern waters of the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka is an island blessed with a large number of attractons which has made the country an ideal destination for the tourism.

Friday, July 31, 2020

Dedigama Eth Pahana

Dedigama Eth Pahana
Dedigama Eth Pahana (meaning: Elephant lamp) is referred to a unique hanging lamp discovered from Dedigama Suthighara Stupa, Kegalle District, Sri Lanka. The lamp is presently on the display in the Polonnaruwa Gallery at Colombo National Museum.

In 1951, two Eth Pahana lamps similar in design were discovered from the upper relic chamber of Suthighara Stupa at Dedigama (Jayawardana & Peiris, 2009; Udayakumari, 2016). This Stupa has been identified as the ancient Cuthighara Dagoba built by King Parakramabahu I (1153-1186 A.D.) in the 12 century A.D. (Nicholas, 1963). According to Mahawamsa, King Manabharana, the father of King Parakramabahu I, used Punkhagama (present Dedigama) as the capital city of the southern locality. It is mentioned that King Parakramabahu I was born there and afterward, he built the Cuthighara (Suthighara) Stupa of 120 cubits (180 ft) tall on the site of the house in which he was born (Nicholas, 1963). 

As it was found from the relic chamber of Suthighara Stupa, the Eth Pahana lamp has been dated by scholars to the reign of King Parakramabahu I; to the 12 century A.D. (Jayawardana & Peiris, 2009).

The lamp
The lamp has been made out of bronze and predominantly represents a figure of an elephant (hollow cast) carrying two mahouts on its shoulder. The elephant is 12.6 cm tall and 6.1 cm wide and stands on the top of a dish base (oil receptacle) with a diameter of 23 cm and a height of 8.5 cm (Jayawardana & Peiris, 2009). The elephant and the two mahouts are held in position by a movable Makara Thorana (the Dragon arch) locked onto the elephant. The total height of the lamp is said to be about 28.5 cm.

The chain by which the lamp is hanged is decorated with a female dancer, a male cymbal player and, a drummer. The end of the chain is decked with an open-hooded cobra forming a hook for hanging the lamp.

A sufficient quantity of oil should be present on the receptacle of a lamp if it is needed to be lit for a long period. In the Eth Pahana lamp, the elephant stands on the oil receptacle (R) and its belly (B) acts as a vessel and a reservoir for the oil. It is possible to remove the elephant figure from the oil receptacle and a pipe (P) has been provided on one of its front legs. By inverting the elephant figure, oil could be poured into the belly of the elephant through the given pipe and the oil stocked in is automatically closed by a valve within. After fixing the elephant figure on the lamp, the stocked oil is started to flow out as droplets onto the receptacle through the elephant's genital organ (O) when the level of the oil in "R" goes below the bottom level of the "P" in the leg due to the consumption of oil by the burning lamp-wick. The air that enters the elephant belly through the opening of "P" builds up the atmospheric pressure inside the belly and causes the oil inside to drip out onto the receptacle. The oil flows even after the opening is covered with oil until such time that the air pressure inside the belly goes below the atmospheric pressure by an amount equal to the pressure developed by the height (H) of oil inside the elephant.

This sequence of events has been demonstrated and proved using the real lamp at the National Museum of Colombo (Jayawardana & Peiris, 2009).

1) Jayawardana, C. and Peiris, K., 2009. Ancient micro scale hydraulic elements in Sri Lanka. Engineer - Vol. XXXXII, No. 03. The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka. pp.51-56.  
2) Nicholas, C. W., 1963. Historical topography of ancient and medieval Ceylon. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series (Vol VI). Special Number: Colombo. Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). p.123. 
3) Udayakumari, P.A.N. 2016. Relationship between Elephant Figure and Hydrostatic Principle of Eth Pahana in Dedigama. In: International Conference on Asian Elephants in Culture & Nature, 20th – 21st August 2016. p.22.

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Sunday, July 26, 2020

Batatotalena Cave

Batatotalena Cave
Batatotalena Cave (Sinhala: Batathota-lena) is a Buddhist cave temple situated in Kuruwita in Ratnapura District, Sri Lanka.

The history of this site is linked by locals to the Lord Buddha. Some believe that Diwa Guhawa or Bhagawalena associated with the Buddha's third visit to Sri Lanka is identical to this site (Abeyawardana, 2002).

The cave is about 20 ft tall (Gnanawimala Thera, 1967). Within the cave, a small Stupa, an image house, and a Vishnu Devalaya shrine can be seen. The image house is the main shrine and has been erected between the Vishnu Devalaya and the Stupa. The front wall of the image house is decorated with a Makara Thorana (a dragon arch) and other murals. The entrance door is guarded by two statues of door-keepers. Inside the image house is a reclining Buddha statue of about 21 cubits long. This statue is believed to be a construction belongs to the reign of King Nissankamalla [(1187-1196 A.D.) Abeyawardana, 2002]. However, some of these constructions show artistic features belonging to the early Kandyan period (Abeyawardana, 2002). Some work of repairs on the present shrine have been done in 1908 (Gnanawimala Thera, 1967).

A small pond created by the water that drips through the inner cavities of the cave roof is also found at the entrance of the cave.

A protected site
The Batathota Lena cave situated in Batathota village in Kuruwita Divisional Secretariat Division is an archaeological protected monument, declared by a government gazette notification published on 27 July 2001.

1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2002. Heritage of Sabaragamuwa: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Sabaragamuwa Development Bank and The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 955-575-077-7. pp.10-11.
2) Gnanawimala Thera, K., 1967. Saparagamu Darshana (In Sinhala). S. Godage Saha Sahodarayo. p.15.
3) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1195. 27 July 2001. 

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Kala Wewa

Kala Wewa
Kala Wewa is a twin reservoir complex (Kala-Balalu Wewa) situated in Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka.

The Kala Vapi or the Kala Wewa was constructed during the reign of King Dhatusena [(459-477 A.D.) Arumugam, 1969]. Historical sources reveal that King Mahinda II (777-797 A.D.) improved and strengthened the work (Arumugam, 1969).

The present reservoir was restored in 1887 and in 1939, it was enlarged by 6 ft (Arumugam, 1969). The breaches in 1957 were repaired in 1958 and the twin reservoirs Kala Wewa and Balalu Wewa were merged together to form one large reservoir (Arumugam, 1969).

In 2015, the reservoir was rehabilitated by the Dam Safety & Water Resources Planning Project.

The reservoir has been constructed across the Kala Oya and the Jaya Ganga. It has a capacity of 100,000 Ac. ft (123 million cubic meters) and has facilitated with a stone-made spillway and three main sluices (Yodha Ela, Goda Ela, and Balalu-wewa). The water of the reservoir brings to the Nuwara Wewa reservoir in Anuradhapura by an ancient 54 miles (86.90 km) long canal called Jaya Ganga or Yodha Ela (Arumugam, 1969) which has a fine slope of 6 inches per mile. 

The Kala Oya valley has been dammed by a 5 mile (8.04 km) long earthen embankment of about 60 ft high (Arumugam, 1969). 

Balalu Wewa

1) Arumugam, S., 1969. Water resources of Ceylon: its utilisation and development. Water Resources Board. pp.17,342-343.

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Kelaniya Raja Maha Viharaya

Kelaniya Viharaya
Kelaniya Raja Maha Viharaya is a Buddhist temple situated in Kelaniya in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka. It is considered as one of the most sacred 16 Buddhist sites (Solosmasthana) in the country by local devotees.

Ancient Kelaniya
The name Kelaniya (or Kalyani) is found in ancient chronicles such as Mahawamsa as one of the abodes of Nagas who, according to chronicles, is a class of super-humans taking the form of serpents and living in a subterranean world (Paranavitana, 1961). The name is also found in a pre-Christian inscription in Mandagala in Hambantota District and in a 5th-century inscription at Diyagama near Kalutara (Nicholas, 1963).

According to chronicles, the Buddha in the eighth year after his enlightenment visited Kelaniya in Sri Lanka with his followers on the full moon day of Vesak and this visit was done upon the invitation by the Naga King Maniakkhika. It is said that the king built a Stupa here by enshrining the gem-studded throne on which the Buddha was seated while preaching Dhamma to the king and his followers. The Stupa in the present Kelaniya Raja Maha Viharaya is believed to be the monument that holding this sacred gem-studded throne.

Foundation of Kelaniya Viharaya
However, the exact history of the foundation of Kelaniya Viharaya is obscure (Nicholas, 1963). Local Pali chronicles are silent about the foundation of Kelaniya Viharaya but Sinhalese chronicles say that Yatalatissa (reigned in the 2nd century B.C.) constructed Kelani Viharaya and a palace and reigned there (Nicholas, 1963). However, the details revealed by the Pali chronicle Mahawamsa that Yatalatissa ruled in Rohana and not at Kelaniya are confirmed epigraphically (Nicholas, 1963). The Pujavaliya (a Sinhalese classic written in the 13th century) mentions that Kavantissa of Ruhuna (205-161 B.C.) as the builder of the Stupa of Kelaniya Viharaya (Nicholas, 1963).

Royal patronage
Kelani Viharaya is said to have existed during the reign of King Dutugemunu [(161-137 B.C.) Nicholas, 1963]. According to historical sources, King Kanittha Tissa (167-186 A.D.) had built an Uposatha-house in Kelani Viharaya and King Voharika Tissa (209-231 A.D.) had erected a parasol on the Stupa of the temple (Nicholas, 1963). After the 3rd century A.D., there are no references in chronicles or epigraphs to the Kelaniya Viharaya until the 12th century A.D.

The inscriptions by King Nissankamalla (1187-1196 A.D.) record that the king had visited Kelani Viharaya and effected repairs there (Nicholas, 1963). The Kelaniya Stupa which had been destroyed later by Tamils (Magha of Kalinga) was restored by King Vijayabahu III (1232-1236 A.D.) with further repairs on other buildings (Nicholas, 1963). King Parakramabahu II (1236-1272 A.D.) also effected major restorations at Kelaniya Viharaya (Nicholas, 1963).

According to the Kelani Vihara slab inscription established in 1509 A.D., the temple which had been in a dilapidated state for a time was repaired by King Vira Parakramabahu VIII [(1490-1509 A.D.) Rohanadeera, 2007]. However, in the 16th century, the Kelani Viharaya was destroyed by the Portuguese who arrived in Sri Lanka in 1505 A.D. In the 18th century, under the patronage of King Kirti Sri Rajasingha (1747-1782 A.D.) the temple was repaired and improved (Ranawella, 2015).

Reformation of Burmese Buddhism and Kalyani inscriptions
During the reign of King Buvanekabahu VI (1470-1478 A.D.), the ruler of Burma (present Myanmar) King Dhammazedi (1471-1492 A.D.) sought the assistance of the Sinhala kings to re-institute the Theravada ordination in his country. In 1476, a group of Burma monks and their disciples were sent to Sri Lanka, where they were re-ordained at the Kelaniya Raja Maha Vihara (Ko, 1892). When they returned to Burma King Dhammazedi was very pleased and he built a chapter house and named it Kalyani-sima (Kalyani ordination hall) and recorded the history of this mission on slabs of stone. These slabs are preserved to this day and are popularly known as Kalyani inscriptions (Ko, 1892).

A few slab and pillar inscriptions has been unearthed from the temple premises. Besides these inscriptions, a copper plate charter issued by King Kirti Sri Rajasingha in Saka year 1701 (1780 A.D.) was also in the possession of the Kelaniya temple (Ranawella, 2015).

Kelaniya Vihara slab inscription of Vira Parakramabahu VIIIKelaniya Vihara slab inscription of Vira Parakramabahu VIII
Period: 16th century A.D.
Reign: Vira Parakramabahu VIII (1490-1509 A.D.)
Script: Sinhala
Language: Sinhala
Content: This inscription is dated to 2051 B.E. (1509 A.D.), the 19th regnal year of King Vira Parakramabahu VIII. It records that the king had involved in repairs and restoration works in Kelani Raja Maha Viharaya which was in a dilapidated state for a time. According to the inscription, the Stupa, the 5-storeyed Pasada (Pas-mahal Paya), and other structures such as the Trivanka-geya, Thel-katara-geya, Samadi Pilima-geya, Na Pilima-geya, Sala-pilima-geya, Sivuru-dageya, and toilets of Kelaniya Viharaya had been repaired under the patronage of the king. A stone parapet and a flight of steps with a Sandakada Pahana (a moonstone) had also been added to the temple newly.
References: Rohanadeera, 1996; Rohanadeera, 2007.

Kelaniya Vihara slab inscription of Mapitigama BuddharakkhitaKelaniya Vihara slab inscription of Mapitigama Buddharakkhita
Period: 18th century A.D.
Reign: Kirti Sri Rajasingha (1747-1782 A.D.)
Script: Modern Sinhala
Language: Modern Sinhala
Content: This inscription is dated to 2322 B.E. (1779 A.D.). It records the work of repairs and donation of lands to the Kalyani Chaitya by Mapitigama Buddharakkhita Thera, incumbent of the temple as the successor of his teacher Attadassi Thera. It further says that the temples of Kitsirimewan Kelaniya and Doranagoda Vihara (probably Doranagoda Sumathindarama Viharaya) which had been in ruins for a time were also repaired and improved. According to the inscription, the support of the Kandyan king (Kirti Sri Rajasingha) had been obtained for this benevolent deed.
Reference: Ranawella, 2015.

The temple
Located near to the bank of Kelani Ganga River, the temple has been built on a raised terrace that can be accessed via four flights of steps set in the four directions. The main entrance to the temple premises has been given a majestic appearance by constructing two large decorated pandols. A large Stupa, a Bodhi-tree, an image house, and a number of other sacred edifices are found within the temple premises.

The temple was refurbished during the first half of the 20th century, under the patronage of philanthropist Helena Wijeywardena.

The image house
The image house of Kelaniya Viharaya mainly has two parts, viz: the old shrine and the new shrine. Both shrines are presently in one building but under two roofs. The image house is roughly 150 ft long and 90 ft wide and stands on a stone plinth 3 feet in height. Its outer walls are adorned with ornamental freezes and Vimanas (the mansions of gods).

Kandyan era paintings
The image house can be entered through a flight of stone steps leading to the verandah and then to the middle chamber or the vestibule. The walls of the middle chamber contain paintings and sculptures belonging to the Kandyan tradition. Jataka stories (stories that tell about the previous 550 lives of the Buddha), life incidents of the Buddha, the Sath-sathiya (the first week after the enlightenment), Solosmasthana (the 16 sacred shrines in Sri Lanka), and other Buddhist murals and sculptures are found drawn in horizontal strip of panels. Besides the walls, the wooden ceiling of this section contains paintings such as the planetary gods and the twelve zodiacal signs.

To the right of the middle chamber is the inner chamber or the sanctum of the old shrine. It contains a large reclining statue of Buddha and two seated Buddha statues. The statues are gold painted and the walls of this section are decorated with the figures of deities (Natha, Saman, etc.), and other Buddhist themes such as Suvisivivarana (24 assurances predicting Buddha-hood). The middle chamber and the inner chamber are considered as the oldest part of the Kelaniya image house and both sections contain murals belonging to the Kandyan tradition.

The new shrine can be entered directly walking forward through the middle chamber. It houses a gold statue of Buddha in the meditation posture. Large-scale paintings depicting the birth of the Sinhala nation ("The Buddha entrusting the protection of Buddhism in Sri Lanka to God Sakra, Landing of Vijaya") and other important events of the history of Buddhism in Sri Lanka such as "King Devanampiyatissa presenting the Mahamegha Park to Arahant Mahinda by marking boundaries, Transcription of the Tripitaka into books at Alu Viharaya, Buddhagosa's presentation of the Visuddhimagga to the Sangharaja of Maha Vihara, King Kirthi Sri conferring the title of Sangharaja to Weliwita Saranankara Maha Thera by presenting him the ivory fan as the emblem of office, and the bringing of the Bodhi-tree by Theri Sangamitta, and the Tooth Relic of the Buddha by Prince Danta and Princess Hemamala" are found in this section.

To the left of this section is the outer chamber of the new shrine. It contains murals depicting the important events in the life of the Buddha as well as the history of Kelani Viharaya. The paintings include "Buddha's three visits to Sri Lanka (to Mahiyangana, Nagadeepa, and Kelaniya), The murder of the Maha Thera of Kelaniya-the consequent floods and the sacrifice of Princess Devi during the reign of Kelanitissa, Theravada tradition of ordination on the Burmese monks, and the destruction of Kelani Vihara by Magha in early 13th century and by Portuguese in late 16th century" etc.

The new shrine is widely famous for its attractive modern painting drawn by the native artist Solias Mendis [(1897-1975) Dharmasiri, 1990]. His paintings are considered to be one of the most important 20th-century contributions to the Sri Lankan tradition of Buddhist mural paintings that expands more than 2000 years (Dharmasiri, 1990).

Kelani Vihara paintings Kelaniya paintings
The Stupa of Kelani Viharaya has been built in accordance to the Dhanyakara shape (the shape of a heaped pile of grains).

Duruthu Perahera
The temple is popular for its annual Perahera pageant (a procession) hold in January. It was inaugurated in 1927, by Don Walter Wijewardene to commemorate the Buddha's first visit to Sri Lanka in the month of Duruthu (January) and to mark the commencement of the restoration work at Kelaniya in 1927.

A protected site
The ancient image house, Dagoba, rectangular two-story building known as Simamalakaya, ancient preaching hall, ancient Vibhishana Devalaya and inscriptions situated in Kalaniya Raja Maha Vihara premises in the Grama Niladari Division bearing No. 264 in Kelaniya Divisional Secretariat Division are archaeological protected monuments, declared by a government gazette notification published on 23 February 2007.

Kelani Viharaya

1) Dharmasiri, A., 1990. Painting, Modern period (1815-1950). Nandadeva W. (Editor in chief), Archaeological Department Centenary (1890-1990): Commemorative series (Vol. V). Painting. Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). pp.132.133.
2) Ko, T.S., 1892. The Kalyānī inscriptions erected by King Dhammacetī at Pegu in 1476 AD: Text and translation. Superintendent, government printing, Burma. pp.the "Contents" page, i-vi.
3) Nicholas, C. W., 1963. Historical topography of ancient and medieval Ceylon. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series (Vol VI). Special Number: Colombo. Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). pp.119-120.
4)  Paranavitana, S., 1961. The Arya Kingdom in North Ceylon. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, Vol VII, Part: II. Colombo. p.181.
5) Ranawella, S., 2015. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon: Inscriptions of Ceylon: Vol. IX. Department of Archaeology. ISBN: 978-955-9159-98-8. pp.58-62.
6) Rohanadeera, M., 1996. Dharma Parakramabahu IX-The Fake King of Ceylon Inflated by Portuguese Historians-A Historiographical Perspective. Vidyodaya J. Soc. Sc., Vol. 7. 1 & 2. pp.13-45.
7) Rohanadeera, M., 2007. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon: Inscriptions of Ceylon: Vol. VIII. Department of Archaeology. ISBN: 978-955-91-59-64-3. pp.91-97.
8) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1486. 23 February 2007. p.122.

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Sunday, July 19, 2020

Kithsirimewan Kelaniya Viharaya

Kithsirimewan Kelaniya Viharaya
Kithsirimewan Kelaniya Viharaya (also known as Egoda Kelaniya Viharaya) is a Buddhist temple situated in Kelaniya in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. It is built on the northern-bank of Kelani Ganga River and the Kelaniya Raja Maha Viharaya, the main Buddhist temple in Kelaniya is located on the southern-bank of the river.

According to chronicles, the Buddha in the eighth year after his enlightenment visited Kelaniya in Sri Lanka with his followers on the full moon day of Vesak and this visit was done upon the invitation by the Naga King Maniakkhika. It is said that the king built a Stupa here by enshrining the gem-studded throne on which the Buddha was seated while preaching Dhamma to the king and his followers. The Stupa in the present Kelaniya Raja Maha Viharaya is believed to be the monument that holding this sacred gem-studded throne.

During this visit, the Buddha and his followers bathed in the Kelani Ganga River before partaking the meals offered by King Maniakkhika. On this occasion, the Buddha gave the Jalasatikawa (the bathing-cloth) he was clad in, to the king. This cloth was enshrined in another Stupa built by the king at the place where the present Kithsirimewan Kelaniya Viharaya stands. This Stupa was later renovated and enlarged by King Kiti Sri Meghavanna (also known as Kithsirimewan) in the 4th century A.D.

Kitsirimewan Kelaniya Vihara slab inscription.Two inscriptions have been unearthed from the site. Of them one is a slab inscription and the other is a pillar inscription. The both inscriptions are presently erected near the entrance gate of the Stupa terrace.

Kitsirimewan Kelaniya Vihara slab inscription.
This inscription (left photograph) is found on a slab of about 6 ft. 4 in. tall and 1 ft. 10 in. wide (Ranawella, 2014). The slab has a slightly rounded upper part and the average thickness of it is about 7 in. (Ranawella, 2014). Fifty-one lines of writing are visible on the front face of the slab. Fifteen more lines along with the figures of a crow, a dog, the sun, and the moon are also found engraved on the right-hand side of it (Ranawella, 2014).

Prof. Sirimal Ranawella has given an account regarding this inscription as follows;
The inscription is dated A.B. 1887 (1344/5 A.D.), the same date as that of the Gadaladeniya and Lankatilaka rock inscriptions of King Bhuvanaikabahu IV (1341-1351), but no regnal year either of Bhuvanaikabahu IV or Parakramabahu V (1344-1359) is given therein. The inscription had been set up by an unnamed hierarch of the liniage of Gangatala Karambavalana, who was the head of Vilgammula fraternity at that time; it infrm us that this hierarch had attended to the repairs of Kitsirimevan Kalani-Viharaya with the patronage of a powerful minister named Alagakkonara, described as the tenth in succession from Nissanka Alagakkonara who himself belonged to a noble family of Vanci. S. Paranavitana who identifies this Alagakkonara as the minister of that name referred to in the Karagala inscription of the eleventh regnal year of King Vijayabahu V (1335-1341), incline to assigned ......>>
Citation: Ranawella, 2014. p. 22.
Kithsirimewan Kelaniya temple Kitsirimewan Kelaniya temple
1) Ranawella, S., 2014. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon: Inscriptions of Ceylon: Vol. VII. Department of Archaeology. ISBN: 978-955-9159-62-9. pp.22-26.

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Memorial of Aranthalawa Massacre

Aranthalawa memorial
Memorial of Aranthalawa Massacre (also known as Monument of Aranthalawa Buddhist monks) is a memorial site situated in the village of Aranthalawa in Ampara District, Sri Lanka. It has been built to commemorate the killing of thirty-one Buddhist monks and three civilians in the village of Aranthalawa on 2 June 1987, by the cadres of "Liberation Tiger of Tamil Eelam" (LTTE), a Tamil secessionist group designated as a terrorist organization by a number of countries including India, the United States and the European Union (DeVotta, 2007; McCargo & Senaratne, 2020). The "Aranthalawa massacre", as this incident came to be known, is considered an event of violence that made clear the LTTE's capacity for ruthless action (Das et al., 2000).

Buddhist monks of Theravada tradition are incapable of defending themselves. Therefore, the harming of monk is considered to be one of the great offenses in Buddhism.  

The incident
Aranthalawa massacre
On 2 June 1987, a group of Buddhist monks (most of them were young novice monks) boarded on a bus from the Mahāvāpi Temple in Ampara for a pilgrimage to Kelaniya Raja Maha Viharaya (Deegalle, 2009). They were stopped near the village of Nuwaragalatenna by a group of armed LTTE cadres led by a leader named Reagan (Das et al., 2000). They ordered the driver of the bus to drive into the nearby Aranthalawa jungle and after the bus stopped, the LTTE cadres murdered 30 young novice monks and their mentor, Hegoda Indrasara Thera (DeVotta, 2007). Three civilians who were on the bus were also killed by the attackers.

A few monks, however, had escaped the massacre. 

Memorial museum
In 2013, a memorial museum was opened by the then President Mahinda Rajapaksa on this site to remember the monks who killed by the LTTE (Ruwanpathirana, 2016). The bus in which the Buddhist monks were massacred is also being exhibited at the site.

Aranthalawa Massacre Aranthalawa Massacre Aranthalawa Massacre Aranthalawa Massacre Aranthalawa Massacre
1) Das, V., Kleinman, A., Ramphele, M., and Reynolds, P., 2000. Violence and subjectivity. Univ of California Press. p.172.
2) Deegalle, M., 2009. Religious concerns in the ethno-politics of Sri Lanka. The Mahachulalongkorn Journal of Buddhist Studies, 2, pp.79-109.
3) DeVotta, N., 2007. Sinhalese Buddhist nationalist ideology: Implications for politics and conflict resolution in Sri Lanka. pp.38,77.
4) McCargo, D., and Senaratne, D., 2020. Victor’s memory: Sri Lanka’spost-war memory scape in comparative perspective. Conflict, Security & Development, 20:1. pp.97-113.
5)  Ruwanpathirana, T., 2016. Memorialisation for transitional justice in Sri Lanka. Centre for Policy Alternatives, Colombo. p.18.

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Saturday, July 18, 2020

Hokandara Purana Viharaya

Hokandara Viharaya
Hokandara Purana Viharaya is a Buddhist temple situated in Hokandara in Colombo District, Sri Lanka.

Archaeological monuments
The image house and the belfry are the main attractions of this temple with an archaeological value.  The image house is an octagonal-shaped building and consists of two sections: the inner shrine and the outer part. A large seated Buddha statue accompanied by two images of Sariputta (left) and Moggallana (right), the two chief disciples of Gautama Buddha, are found inside the inner shrine. A small Devalaya shrine has also been built in the outer part of the image house.

The belfry
Hokandara temple
The belfry is located in front of the image house. At the bottom of this bell-tower, there are two plaques probably containing the years denoted in Buddhist and Christian eras. Of them, one plaque displays the number "2479" (if this number is taken as a Buddhist year, its complementary Christian year should be 1935) while the other plaque contains the number "1858" (if we consider this as a Christian year the corresponding Buddhist year of it should be 2402). These numbers may denote the construction date of the belfry (probably including the image house) or other establishment of the temple.

A protected site
The image house and the belfry located in the territory of the Hokandara Purana Vihara in Hokandara village in the Grama Niladari Division of Hokandara-North in Kaduwela Divisional Secretary’s Division are archaeological protected monuments, declared by a government gazette notification published on 20 June 2014.

Hokandara Vihara Hokandara Vihara
1) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1868. 20 June 2014. p.503.

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Sunday, July 12, 2020

Kumburulena Raja Maha Viharaya

Kumburulena Viharaya
Kumburulena Raja Maha Viharaya (also known as Kumburulena Sri Siddhartha Pirivena) is a Buddhist temple situated in Ridigama in Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka.

The history of Kumburulena temple goes back to the early period of Anuradhapura era. Several early-Brahmi inscriptions belonging to the 2nd-1st centuries B.C have been found from the drip-ledged rock caves situated in the temple premises (Paranavitana, 1970). According to the view of Nicholas, Kumburulena was doubtless a part of the Ridi Viharaya (a nearby temple) entourage (Nicholas, 1963). 

The temple name Kumburulena is mentioned in the old Sinhalese text "Nampota" along with other nearby temples including "Segelena" and "Ridi-lena" (Ridi Viharaya).

Prof. S. Paranavitana has read and published 7 early-Brahmi inscriptions discovered from the site (Paranavitana, 1970). Of them, there are two cave inscriptions by Majjhima, the director of the palanquin bearers of King Gamini Abhaya who, according to scholars, is probably King Vattagamani Abhaya [(89-77 B.C.) Nicholas, 1963].

Kumburulena cave inscriptions of Majjhima
Kumburulena inscriptionsPeriod: 2nd-1st centuries B.C.
Script : Early Brahmi
Language: Old Sinhala
Transcript: Maharajhasha Gamani Abayasa sivika adaka parumaka Majjhima(sha) (le)ne agata anagata (catudisha shagasha)
Translation: The cave of chief Majhima, Director of palanquins of King Gamini Abhaya is given to (the Sangha of all four quarters) present and absent.
References: The information board at the site by the Department of Archaeology and the Ministry of Education.

Kumburulena Viharaya Kumburulena Viharaya Kumburulena Viharaya
1) Nicholas, C. W., 1963. Historical topography of ancient and medieval Ceylon. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series (Vol VI). Special Number: Colombo. Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). p.106.
2) Paranavitana, S., 1970. Inscriptions of Ceylon: Volume I: Early Brahmi Inscriptions. Department of Archaeology Ceylon. pp.69-70.

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This page was last updated on 25 July 2020
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Nampota (also called as Vihara-asna) is an ancient Sinhalese text that lists the principle Buddhist temples in Sri Lanka. The author of the text is not known and the work is considered to be a one compiled after the 14th century (Wikramasinghe, 1900). The text was also one of the books used in schools attached to Buddhist temples, which must be committed to memory (Wikramasinghe, 1900).

The list which contains 267 Vihara and Devalas were popular in the past among villagers and is said to be recited along with the Dorakada-asna in the course of a Pirith ceremony (Weerakone, 1991).

Original text
නමො බුද්‍ධාය
සගම, පස්ගම, අරත්තන, මාදන්වල, විල්වල, කඩදොර, මොරපාය, දිඹුල, පුසුල්පිටිය, නියම්ගම්පායස්ථානය, වල්වාසගොඩ, සැලව, අරම, මැදිළිය, දික්පිටිය, බම්පනේ, කාරියගම, දඩගමුව, අළුත් නුවර, පරණ නුවර, මාවෙල, මාකඩවර, හිඟුල, කප්පාගොඩ, පදීදොර, උතුරාවල, අම්බුළුගල, දනගිරිගල, වාගිරිගල, ලෙනගල, අලවතුර, වතුර, මාකුරාව, කවුඩුගම, බිසෝවෙල, දැදිගම, අරන්දොර, දොරවක, මඩබඩවිට, තොටගෙදර, මදුරුපිටිය, අත්තනගල්ල, ඌරාවෙල, ගොඩගෙදර, දොරණෑගොඩ, යටවත්ත, රාගම, මීගමුව, දඹදෙණිය, බෙලිගල, නවගමුව, බමුණුගම, වට්ටාරම, වතුදෙණිය, පුහුරිය, ගල්බඩගම, කොල්ලුර, ඔකඳපළ, උඩපළ, අල්ගම, නවකෙළගමුව, ඇත්කඳ විහාරය, කුරුණෑගල, කුරුවෙණියාගල, ආඳාගල, ඉබ්බාගල, යක්දෙස්සාගල, නාථගම, සංවැල්ල, කඩිකාව, මලගණේ, කබල්ලෑලෙන, නියඳවනේ, නාගල විහාරය, රැස්වෙහෙරුව, තලන්ගමුව, පෙරියකඩුව, දේවගිරි විහාරය, සංගමු විහාරය, උතුරුපවු විහාරය, බුජස්ලෙන, යාම්ලෙන, ජයකඩුලෙන, සැඟෑලෙන, කුඹුරුලෙන, රිදීලෙන, රම්බඩගල්ල, දෙල්විට, විල්ගම, අස්ගිරිය, රුසීගම, ඇම්බැක්ක, මිලිලවාණය, බඹාවිහාරය, රන්ගිරිදඹුල්ල, සීගිරිය, කලාවැව, බළල්ලෑව, අනුරාධපුරයෙහි ශ්‍රී මහා බෝධීන් වහන්සේ, ලෝවා මහා ප්‍රාසාද ස්ථානය, මිරිසවැටි විහාරය, අභයගිරි විහාරය, දෙනා නඛය, භගිරි නඛය, රත්නමාලී චෛත්‍යය, ථූපාරාම වෛත්‍යය, මිහින්තලය, අටසැටලෙන, නිතුපත්පාන, සුරුලුමහමුනියාව, මුන්නේස්සරම, ඇත්තල, මක්කම, මන්නාරම, මාන්තෝට්‍ටම, පොම්පරිප්පුව, මල්විල, දෙමළපට්ටනමෙහි නාගකෝවිල, කදුරුගොඩ විහාරය, තෙලිපොල, මල්ලාගම, මිණිවන්ගොමු විහාරය, තන්නි දිවයින, අග්නි දිවයින, නාග දිවයින, පුවඟු දිවයින, කාර දිවයින, මොල්ලියාවල, තිරිකුණාමලය, විල්ගම් වෙහෙර, තිස්ස මහ වෙහෙර, ඉලන්දගොඩ, කදුරුකෝට්‍ටයෙහි ඇතුබඳය, ලඞ්‍කාතිලකය, ගඩලාදෙණිය, විජයොත්පාය, අභය ගිරි විහාරය, ජේතවන විහාරය, කපිල විහාරය, ඉසිපතනාරාමය, කුසිනාරාමයේ සිටිපිළිම ගෙය, පූර්‍වාරාමය, දක්‍ෂිණාරාමය, පශ්චිමාරාමය, උත්තරාරාමය, සළුමිණිසෑය, සිළුමිණිසෑය, දෙමළ මහ සෑය, පොළොන්නරු විහාරය, සුළුන්නරු විහාරය, සිතුල්පවු විහාරය, ධනංජය විහාරය, කුකුළුවා විහාරය, දඹුලාගල් විහාරය, නකා වෙහෙර, මියුඟුණා වෙහෙර, සොරන්නා තොට, බදුලු වෙහෙර, යුඳඟනා පිටිය, රුහුණුබද කතරගම, උග්ගල් අළුත්නුවර, තඹගමුව, මුල්ගිරිය, ඔවාගිරි විහාරය, දෙව්නුවරෙහි දිව්‍යරාජ භවනය, ඔත්පිළිම ගෙය, ගල්ගණේ, වැලිගම අග්‍රබෝධි විහාරය, පරගොඩ විහාරය, තොටගමු විහාරය, ගලපාත විහාරය, බෝධිමලු විහාරය, වනවාස විහාරය, බෙම්වෙහෙර, බෙම්තොට, කළුතොට, සොරණ, විසිදාගම, කොතලාවල, රඹුක්කන, පානදුරේ දේවාලය, බෙලන්විල, පැපිළියාන, නාවින්න, විජයාරාමය, සුභද්‍රාරාමය, ජයවර්‍ධන කෝට්ටයෙහි ඔත්පිළිම ගෙය, ෂන්මුඛ දේවාලය, කිත්සිරිමෙවන් කැළණිය, රජමහ කැළණිය, විභීෂණ දේවාලය, වැලිවිට, බොල්ලෑගල, සංවැල්ල, සේවාගම, දිසාපති නුගය, කඩුදෙවොල, බෝමිරිය, කෙහෙල්බටුවාව, අතුරුගිරි විහාරය, දෙනගමුව, දෙල්ගමුව, බටුගෙදර, දෙනවක, සබරගමුව, ගලීමලය, සමන්තකූට පර්‍වතය, දිවාගුහාව, බල්ලාහෙල, සිඳගල, කළුගමුව, ගංගාතිලක විහාරය, කුඹල්ඔළුව, අලුදෙණිය, කොටකේදෙණිය, ඉලුපැන්දෙණිය, සේන්දෙණිය, නිග්ගම්මන, අරත්තන, සන්තානාගොඩ, වේගිරිය, ඇම්බැක්ක, වටදාගෙය, දෑලිවෙල, ගඟුල්දෙණිය, උරුලෑදෙණිය, කොටබෝගොඩ, රම්මුංගොඩ, දෙල්දෙණිය, මැණික්දිවෙල, මොනරාගොඩ, කොළුගල, වල්ගම්පාය, දම්තොටවතුර, සියඹලාගොඩ, දොඩම්වල, දියකෙළිනාවල, සූරියගොඩ, කොබ්බෑකඩුව, ගන්නොරුව, කුළුගම්මන, මාගම්මන, අත්තරගම, මැදවෙල, ගල්ලෑල්ල, දොළපීල්ල, අලවතුගොඩ, කොහොන, තිබ්බොටුවාව, ඇඹිල්ල විහාරය, ආලෝක විහාරය, කුරුවාබෝගම්බර, කඩුවෙල, දුනුවිල, ඇඹෙල, නිත්තවෙල, සිරිමල්වත්ත, අමුණුගම, ගංගාරාම විහාරය, සෙංකඩගල, අළුත් විහාරය, පරණ විහාරය, නාගවිමානය, උපෝසථාරාමය, ශ්‍රී දංෂ්‍ට්‍රා දළදා මන්‍දිරය ඇතුළු වූ සියලු විහාර දේවාලයවල අධිගෘහිත දෙවි මහරජාණන් තමනුත්, තමන්ගේ සහ පිරිවර දෙවියනුත් සන්දෘෂ්‍ට සම්‍භක්‍ත දෙවියනුත්, උපවෙනෙහි දෙවියනුත්, නොහැර කැඳවාගෙන මඞ්‍ගල සූත්‍රාදි බණ අසනු පිණිස ඊම සමග මහා සඞ්‍ඝයා වහන්සේට අභිමත දෝ, අභිමත දෝ, අභිමත දෝ! අහිමතයි, අභිමතයි, අහිමතයි! සමග මහා සඞ්‍ඝයා වහන්සේ සඟ ව වදාළ මෙහෙවර සඞ්‍ඝාණත්‍තිය නූගුළුවා ඉයැ යුතු.
Identification of temples
This is an incomplete list prepared by "Lanka Pradeepa".

No. Name Present site (or probable)
1 සගම (Sagama)
2 පස්ගම (Pasgama)
3 අරත්තන (Arattana)
4 මාදන්වල (Madanwala)
5 විල්වල (Wilwala)
6 කඩදොර (Kadadora)
7 මොරපාය (Morapaya)
8 දිඹුල (Dimbula)
9 පුසුල්පිටිය (Pusulpitiya)
10 නියම්ගම්පායස්ථානය
Niyamgampaya Raja Maha Viharaya, Kandy
11 වල්වාසගොඩ (Valvasagoda)
12 සැලව (Selawa)
13 අරම (Arama)
14 මැදිළිය (Mediliya)
15 දික්පිටිය (Dikpitiya)
16 බම්පනේ (Bampane)
17 කාරියගම (Kariyagama)
18 දඩගමුව (Dadagamuwa)
19 අළුත් නුවර (Alut-nuwara)
20 පරණ නුවර (Parana-nuwara)
21 මාවෙල (Mawela)
22 මාකඩවර (Makadawara)
23 හිඟුල (Hingula)
24 කප්පාගොඩ (Kappagoda)
25 පදීදොර (Padeedora)
26 උතුරාවල (Uturawala)
27 අම්බුළුගල (Ambulugala)
28 දනගිරිගල (Danagirigala)
29 වාගිරිගල (Vagirigala)
30 ලෙනගල (Lenagala)
31 අලවතුර (Alavatura)
32 වතුර (Vatura)
33 මාකුරාව (Makurawa)
34 කවුඩුගම (Kawdugama)
35 බිසෝවෙල (Bisowela)
36 දැදිගම (Dedigama)
37 අරන්දොර (Arandora)
38 දොරවක (Dorawaka)
39 මඩබඩවිට (Madabadawita)
40 තොටගෙදර (Totagedara)
41 මදුරුපිටිය (Madurupitiya)
42 අත්තනගල්ල (Attanagalla) Attanagalla Raja Maha Viharaya
43 ඌරාවෙල (Urawela)
44 ගොඩගෙදර (Godagedara)
45 දොරණෑගොඩ (Doranegoda)
46 යටවත්ත (Yatawatta) Yatawatta Purana Viharaya, Gampaha
47 රාගම (Ragama)
48 මීගමුව (Meegamuwa)
49 දඹදෙණිය (Dambadeniya)
50 බෙලිගල (Beligala)
51 නවගමුව (Nawagamuwa)
52 බමුණුගම (Bamunugama)
53 වට්ටාරම (Vattarama)
54 වතුදෙණිය (Watudeniya)
55 පුහුරිය (Puhuriya)
56 ගල්බඩගම (Galbadagama)
57 කොල්ලුර (Kollura)
58 ඔකඳපළ (Okandapala)
59 උඩපළ (Udapala)
60 අල්ගම (Algama)
61 නවකෙළගමුව (Nawakelagamuwa)
62 ඇත්කඳ විහාරය
(Athkanda Viharaya)
Athkanda Raja Maha Viharaya, Kurunegala
63 කුරුණෑගල (Kurunegala)
64 කුරුවෙණියාගල (Kuruweniyagala)
65 ආඳාගල (Andagala)
66 ඉබ්බාගල (Ibbagala)
67 යක්දෙස්සාගල (Yakdessagala)
68 නාථගම (Nathagama)
69 සංවැල්ල (Sanwella)
70 කඩිකාව (Kadikawa)
71 මලගණේ (Malagane)
72 කබල්ලෑලෙන (Kaballelena)
73 නියඳවනේ (Niyandawane)
74 නාගල විහාරය (Nagala Viharaya)
75 රැස්වෙහෙරුව (Reseveheruwa)
76 තලන්ගමුව (Thalangamuwa)
77 පෙරියකඩුව (Periyakaduwa)
78 දේවගිරි විහාරය (Devagiri Viharaya)
79 සංගමු විහාරය (Sangamu Viharaya)
80 උතුරුපවු විහාරය
(Uturupaw Viharaya)

81 බුජස්ලෙන (Bujaslena)
82 යාම්ලෙන (Yamlena)
83 ජයකඩුලෙන (Jayakadulena)
84 සැඟෑලෙන (Sengelena)
85 කුඹුරුලෙන (Kumburulena) Kumburulena Viharaya, Kurunegala
86 රිදීලෙන (Rideelena)
87 රම්බඩගල්ල (Rambadagalla)
88 දෙල්විට (Delwita)
89 විල්ගම (Wilgama)
90 අස්ගිරිය (Asgiriya)
91 රුසීගම (Ruseegama)
92 ඇම්බැක්ක (Embekka)
93 මිලිලවාණය (Mililawanaya)
94 බඹාවිහාරය (Bamba-viharaya)
95 රන්ගිරිදඹුල්ල (Rangiri-dambulla) Dambulla Raja Maha Viharaya, Matale
96 සීගිරිය (Sigiriya)
97 කලාවැව (Kalawewa)
98 බළල්ලෑව (Balallewa)
99 අනුරාධපුරයෙහි ශ්‍රී මහා බෝධීන් වහන්සේ
(Anuradhapurayehi Sri Maha Bodhin Vahanse)
Sri Maha Bodhiya, Anuradhapura
100 ලෝවා මහා ප්‍රාසාද ස්ථානය
(Lova-maha-prasada Stanaya)
Lovamahapaya, Anuradhapura
101 මිරිසවැටි විහාරය (Mirisaweti Viharaya) Mirisawetiya, Anuradhapura
102 අභයගිරි විහාරය (Abhyagiri Viharaya)
103 දෙනා නඛය (Dena-nakhaya)
104 භගිරි නඛය (Bhagiri-nakhaya)
105 රත්නමාලී චෛත්‍යය
(Ratnamali Cheitya)
Ruwanweliseya, Anuradhapura
106 ථූපාරාම චෛත්‍යය (Thuparama Cheitya) Thuparamaya, Anuradhapura
107 මිහින්තලය (Mihintalaya) Mihintale Monastery, Anurdhapura
108 අටසැටලෙන (Atasetalena) Ata Seta Len, Anurdhapura
109 නිතුපත්පාන (Nitupatpana)
110 සුරුලුමහමුනියාව (Surulumahamuniyawa)
111 මුන්නේස්සරම (Munnessarama)
112 ඇත්තල (Eththala)
113 මක්කම (Makkama)
114 මන්නාරම (Mannarama)
115 මාන්තෝට්‍ටම (Manthottama)
116 පොම්පරිප්පුව (Pomparippuwa)
117 මල්විල (Malwila)
118 දෙමළපට්ටනමෙහි නාගකෝවිල
(Demalapattanamehi Naga-kovila)
Nagar Kovil in Vadamarachchi, Jaffna
119 කදුරුගොඩ විහාරය (Kadurugoda Viharaya) Kadurugoda Viharaya, Jaffna
120 තෙලිපොල (Telipola) Present Telippalai, Jaffna
121 මල්ලාගම (Mallagama) Present Mallakam, Jaffna
122 මිණිවන්ගොමු විහාරය
(Miniwangomu Viharaya)
Present Vimanakamam (in Valikamam), Jaffna
123 තන්නි දිවයින (Thanni Divaina) Present Tanativu (Kayts), Jaffna
124 අග්නි දිවයින (Agni Divaina)
125 නාග දිවයින (Naga Divaina) Present Nainativu, Jaffna
126 පුවඟු දිවයින (Puvangu Divaina) Present Punkudutivu, Jaffna
127 කාර දිවයින (Kara Divaina) Present Karativu, Jaffna
128 මොල්ලියාවල (Molliyawala)
129 තිරිකුණාමලය (Tirikunamalaya)
130 විල්ගම් වෙහෙර (Vilgam Vehera)
131 තිස්ස මහ වෙහෙර

132 ඉලන්දගොඩ (Ilandagoda)
133 කදුරුකෝට්‍ටයෙහි ඇතුබඳය
(Kadurukottayehi Athubandaya)

134 ලඞ්‍කාතිලකය (Lankatilakaya) Lankatilaka Viharaya, Kandy
135 ගඩලාදෙණිය (Gadaladeniya) Gadaladeniya Viharaya, Kandy
136 විජයොත්පාය (Vijayothpaya)
137 අභයගිරි විහාරය (Abayagiri Viharaya)
138 ජේතවන විහාරය (Jetavana Viharaya)
139 කපිල විහාරය (Kapila Viharaya)
140 ඉසිපතනාරාමය (Isipatanaramaya)
141 කුසිනාරාමයේ සිටිපිළිම ගෙය

142 පූර්‍වාරාමය (Purvaramaya)
143 දක්‍ෂිණාරාමය (Dakshinaramaya)
144 පශ්චිමාරාමය (Pashchimaramaya)
145 උත්තරාරාමය (Uttararamaya)
146 සළුමිණිසෑය (Saluminiseya)
147 සිළුමිණිසෑය (Siluminiseya)
148 දෙමළ මහ සෑය (Demala-maha-seya)
149 පොළොන්නරු විහාරය
(Polonnaru Viharaya)

150 සුළුන්නරු විහාරය
(Sulunnaru Viharaya)

151 සිතුල්පවු විහාරය (Sithulpaw Viharaya)
152 ධනංජය විහාරය
(Dananjaya Viharaya)

153 කුකුළුවා විහාරය (Kukuluwa Viharaya)
154 දඹුලාගල් විහාරය
(Dambulagal Viharaya)

155 නකා වෙහෙර (Naka Vehera)
156 මියුඟුණා වෙහෙර (Miyinguna Vehera)
157 සොරන්නා තොට (Soranna-tota)
158 බදුලු වෙහෙර (Badulu Vehera)
159 යුඳඟනා පිටිය (Yudagana-pitiya)
160 රුහුණුබද කතරගම (Ruhunubada Kataragama)
161 උග්ගල් අළුත්නුවර (Uggal Alutnuwara)
162 තඹගමුව (Tambagamuwa)
163 මුල්ගිරිය (Mulgiriya)
164 ඔවාගිරි විහාරය (Ovagiri Viharaya)
165 දෙව්නුවරෙහි දිව්‍යරාජ භවනය
(Devnuwarehi Diwyaraja Bhavanaya)

166 ඔත්පිළිම ගෙය (Oth-pilima-geya)
167 ගල්ගණේ (Galgane)
168 වැලිගම අග්‍රබෝධි විහාරය
(Weligama Agrabodhi Viharaya)

169 පරගොඩ විහාරය (Paragoda Viharaya)
170 තොටගමු විහාරය
(Thotagamu Viharaya)

171 ගලපාත විහාරය (Galapata Viharaya)
172 බෝධිමලු විහාරය
(Bodhimalu Viharaya)

173 වනවාස විහාරය (Vanavasa Viharaya)
174 බෙම්වෙහෙර (Bemvehera)
175 බෙම්තොට (Bemtota)
176 කළුතොට (Kalotota)
177 සොරණ (Sorana)
178 විසිදාගම (Visidagama)
179 කොතලාවල (Kotalawala)
180 රඹුක්කන (Rambukkana)
181 පානදුරේ දේවාලය (Panadure devalaya)
182 බෙලන්විල (Belanwila)
183 පැපිළියාන (Pepiliyana)
184 නාවින්න (Navinna)
185 විජයාරාමය (Vijayaramaya)
186 සුභද්‍රාරාමය (Subhadraramaya)
187 ජයවර්‍ධන කෝට්ටයෙහි ඔත්පිළිම ගෙය
(Jayawardana Kottayehi Oth-pilima-geya)
Image house of Kotte Raja Maha Viharaya, Colombo
188 ෂන්මුඛ දේවාලය
(Shanmukha Devalaya)
Devalaya situated in the premises of Kotte Raja Maha Viharaya, Colombo
189 කිත්සිරිමෙවන් කැළණිය
(Kitsirimevan Kelaniya)
Kelaniya Kitsirimevan Viharaya, Colombo
190 රජමහ කැළණිය
(Raja-maha Kelaniya)
Kelaniya Raja Maha Viharaya, Gampaha
191 විභීෂණ දේවාලය (Vibishana Devalaya)
192 වැලිවිට (Weliwita)
193 බොල්ලෑගල (Bollegala)
194 සංවැල්ල (Sanwella)
195 සේවාගම (Sewagama)
196 දිසාපති නුගය (Disapati Nugaya)
197 කඩුදෙවොල (Kadu Devola)
198 බෝමිරිය (Bomiriya)
199 කෙහෙල්බටුවාව (Kehelbatuwawa)
200 අතුරුගිරි විහාරය (Athurugiri Viharaya)
201 දෙනගමුව (Denagamuwa)
202 දෙල්ගමුව (Delgamuwa)
203 බටුගෙදර (Batugedara)
204 දෙනවක (Denawaka)
205 සබරගමුව (Sabaragamuwa)
206 ගලීමලය (Galeemalaya)
207 සමන්තකූට පර්‍වතය
(Samantakuta Parvataya)
Sri Pada, Ratnapura
208 දිවාගුහාව (Diva-guhawa)
209 බල්ලාහෙල (Ballahela)
210 සිඳගල (Sindagala)
211 කළුගමුව (Kalugamuwa)
212 ගංගාතිලක විහාරය
(Gangatilaka Viharaya)

213 කුඹල්ඔළුව (Kumbal-oluwa)
214 අලුදෙණිය (Aludeniya)
215 කොටකේදෙණිය (Kotakedeniya)
216 ඉලුපැන්දෙණිය (Ilupendeniya)
217 සේන්දෙණිය (Sendeniya)
218 නිග්ගම්මන (Niggammana)
219 අරත්තන (Arattana)
220 සන්තානාගොඩ (Santanagoda)
221 වේගිරිය (Vegiriya)
222 ඇම්බැක්ක (Embekka)
223 වටදාගෙය (Vatadageya)
224 දෑලිවෙල (Deliwela)
225 ගඟුල්දෙණිය (Ganguldeniya)
226 උරුලෑදෙණිය (Uruledeniya)
227 කොටබෝගොඩ (Kotabogoda)
228 රම්මුංගොඩ (Rammungoda)
229 දෙල්දෙණිය (Deldeniya)
230 මැණික්දිවෙල (Menikdiwela)
231 මොනරාගොඩ (Monaragoda)
232 කොළුගල (Kolugala)
233 වල්ගම්පාය (Valgampaya)
234 දම්තොටවතුර (Damtotavathura)
235 සියඹලාගොඩ (Siyambalagoda)
236 දොඩම්වල (Dodamwala)
237 දියකෙළිනාවල (Diyakelinawala)
238 සූරියගොඩ (Suriyagoda)
239 කොබ්බෑකඩුව (Kobbekaduwa)
240 ගන්නොරුව (Gannoruwa)
241 කුළුගම්මන (Kulugammana)
242 මාගම්මන(Magammana)
243 අත්තරගම (Attaragama)
244 මැදවෙල (Medawela)
245 ගල්ලෑල්ල (Gallella)
246 දොළපීල්ල (Dolapeella)
247 අලවතුගොඩ (Alavatugoda)
248 කොහොන (Kohona)
249 තිබ්බොටුවාව (Tibbotuwawa)
250 ඇඹිල්ල විහාරය (Embilla Viharaya)
251 ආලෝක විහාරය (Aloka Viharaya)
252 කුරුවාබෝගම්බර (Kuruwabogambara)
253 කඩුවෙල (Kaduwela)
254 දුනුවිල (Dunuwila)
255 ඇඹෙල (Ambela)
256 නිත්තවෙල (Nittawela)
257 සිරිමල්වත්ත (Sirimalwatta)
258 අමුණුගම (Amunugama)
259 ගංගාරාම විහාරය (Gangarama Viharaya)
260 සෙංකඩගල (Senkadagala)
261 අළුත් විහාරය (Alut-viharaya)
262 පරණ විහාරය (Parana-viharaya)
263 නාගවිමානය (Naga Vimanaya)
264 උපෝසථාරාමය (Uposataramaya)
265 ශ්‍රී දංෂ්‍ට්‍රා දළදා මන්‍දිරය
(Sri Danshtra Dalada Mandiraya)

1) Weerakone, T.B., 1991. The study of place names in Sri Lanka. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka, New Series, Vol. 36 (1991/1992). pp.28-95.
2) Wikramasinghe, D.M.D.Z., 1900. Catalogue of the Sinhalese Manuscripts in the British Museum: London. p.41.
This page was last updated on 5 August 2020
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