Saturday, October 12, 2019

Kotte Raja Maha Viharaya

Kotte Raja Maha Viharaya
Kotte Raja Maha Viharaya is a Buddhist temple located in Pita Kotte in Colombo District, Sri Lanka.

History
The history of Kotte temple is dated back to the period of Kotte Kingdom (1412-1597 A.D.). The temple which was the main religious center for the Kingdom of Kotte during the 15 century, is described in details in Sandesha Kavya (poetic literature) of the era and was developed under the royal patronage of King Parakramabahu VI [(1412-1467 A.D.) Manathunga, 2016; Rajapakshe et al., 2018].

At the time, the temple is said to be completed in all aspects including a three storeyed Temple of Tooth, a Stupa, a Bodhi-tree, an image house and a Pohoya Geya. It was located near to the royal palace of Kotte and therefore, it received much royal patronage of the kings of Kotte Kingdom. However, with the down fall of Kotte Kingdom, the temple confronted invasions by the Portuguese and the Dutch (Rajapakshe et al., 2018). During the Dutch period, the temple was completely destroyed .

The destroyed Kotte Viharaya was re-established by Ven. Pilane Buddha Rakkhitha Thera in 1818, by utilizing the ruins and remains of the old temple (Rajapakshe et al., 2018). New constructions such as an image house and a Vahalkada/Vahal Doratuwa (the entrance to the temple premises) were added to the temple subsequently by Buddha Rakkhitha Thera.

Folklore
Presently, a Na-tree (iron wood) located few meters outside of the temple premises, is worshiped as a sacred tree by the local people. They connect the history of this tree with Prince Sapumal, the adopted son of King Parakramabahu VI, who attacked Jaffna (Yapa Patuna) and brought it under the control of Kotte Kingdom. According to them, Prince Sapumal had made a vow to this Na-tree prior to his departure to capture Jaffna peninsula.
  
Literary mentions
Nampotha (Vihara Asna)
The temple at Kotte is mentioned in the 15th century Sinhalese text "Nampotha" as "Jayawardhana Kottayehi Oth Pilima Geya" & "Shanmukha Devalaya". The Oth Pilima Geya (the house of reclining statue) is believed to be the image house (with reclining Buddha statue) of old Kotte temple built by King Parakramabahu VI while the shrine in front of it, is believed to be the Shanmukha Devalaya.

Image house
The image house which has a rectangular shape, is about 40 ft. long, 30 ft. wide, and 40 ft high (Rajapakshe et al., 2018). The open verandah which facing the north makes the access to the image house and its roof is supported by eight pairs of cylindrical shaped pillars. 

The image house consists of two sections; the outer hall and the middle Mandapaya (a pavilion). The outer hall runs around the middle Mandapaya and can be accessed through two separated entrances. The middle Mandapaya also contains two compartments: the outer section and the inner section. The front and side walls of the outer section have been adorned with Kandyan era paintings (Southern School art style) and sculptures depicting floral decorations, divinities and Jathaka stories such as Thelapatta, Manichora, Chulla Paduma and Kattahari (Rajapakshe et al., 2018) . The inner section which can be accessed through two entrances, houses four Buddha statues; a large reclining statue and three standing statues (Rajapakshe et al., 2018). A portrait of Queen Victoria and a crest containing the name "Jayawardana Kotte Jayawardhana Maha Vihara" in English are found drawn over the right and left entrance doors of the inner section (Rajapakshe et al., 2018).

A portrait of Queen Victoria, Kotte temple Queen Victoria at Kotte Raja Maha Viharaya

A portrait  of Queen Victoria  who received  the  coronation
as  the  queen  of  all colonial  countries has  been  painted
over the inner entrance (the right door) of the image house
of  Kotte  Raja  Maha  Viharaya.  A  similar portrait  can  be
seen at Dehiwala Karagampitiya Viharaya.
Reference : Chutiwongs et al., 1990. p.34.
Besides the old image house, several other constructions such as the Vahal Doratuwa, the Kataragama Devalaya, and the Bamunu Geya are considered as old monuments with archaeological interests (Rajapakshe et al., 2018).

A protected site
The all artifacts and the ancient Wahalkada (Gateway) located in the territory of the Kotte Raja Maha Vihara in the Grama Niladari Division of Pitakotte (GND No. 522) in Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte Divisional Secretary’s Division are archaeological protected monuments, declared by a government Gazette notification published on 20 June 2014.
 
Kotte Raja Maha Viharaya Kotte Raja Maha Viharaya Kotte Raja Maha Viharaya Kotte Raja Maha Viharaya

Attribution
1) Kotte Raja Maha Vihara 1 by L Manju is licensed under CC BY SA 4.0

References
1) Chutiwongs, N.; Prematilaka, L.; Silva, R., 1990. Sri Lanka Bithu Sithuwam: Karagampitiya (Paintings of Sri Lanka: Karagampitiya). Sri Lanka Archaeological Authority: Centenary publication. Central Cultural Fund. p.34.
2) Manathunga, S. B., 2016. Pauranika Sthana Saha Smaraka: Kolamba Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 955-9159-39-9. p.85.
3) Rajapakshe, S.; Bandara, T. M. C.; Vanninayake, R. M. B. T. A. B. (Editors), 2018. Puravidya Sthana Namavaliya: Kolamba Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Vol. I. Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 978-955-7457-19-2. pp.7-5.
4) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1868. 20 June 2014. p.503.

Location Map

This page was last updated on 12 October 2019

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