Wednesday, January 27, 2021

Lankatilaka Viharaya, Kandy

Lankatilaka Viharaya
Lankatilaka Viharayais a Buddhist temple built on the Panhalgala rock in the village of Hiyarapitiya in Kandy District, Sri Lanka.

History
The history of Lankatilaka Viharaya is related to the Gampola Period.  Rock inscriptions found in the temple premises reveal that Senalankadhikara, a minister of King Bhuvanekabahu IV (c.1341-1351 A.D.) built Lankatilaka Viharaya in the Saka year 1266 which is 1344 A.D. (Abeyawardana, 2004; De Silva, 1990; Jayasuriya, 2016).

Thereafter, the temple received the patronage of several kings. King Parakramabahu VI (1412-1467 A.D.) carried out some stucco work in the temple in the 15th century A.D. (Jayasuriya, 2016). During the reign of King Kirti Sri Rajasinghe (1747-1782 A.D.), the inner walls were decorated with murals (Jayasuriya, 2016).

Architecture
Lankatilaka image house
The architect of the image house of Lankatilaka Viharaya is said to be a South Indian (Jayasuriya, 2016). Therefore, as in the case of Gadaladeniya Viharaya, it evidently displays a South Indian architectural layout. Shrines with similar layouts are commonly found in Tamil Nadu in India and Candi Singhasari in Java (Jayasuriya, 2016). According to the view of Abeyawardana, this image house depicts a combination of Indo-China architectural patterns mixed with the Polonnaruwa architectural features influenced by temples in Myanmar and Japan (Abeyawardana, 2004).

Originally Lankatilaka image house was a four-storied building and it has gone through several renovations over the course of years (De Silva, 1990; Jayasuriya, 2016; Rajapakse, 2016). Presently, only the ground floor and a part of the second floor remain (Jayasuriya, 2016; Rajapakse, 2016). The height of the present building is 18.3 m (De Silva, 1990).

Lankatilaka image house
Lankatilaka image house is an example of a Buddhist shrine associated with Hindu elements (Jayasuriya, 2016). The Buddha shrine has been built towards the eastern direction and the Hindu shrine towards the west (Jayasuriya, 2016). Figures of deities such as Upulvan, Sumana, Vibishana, Ganapati, Kumara Bandara, and their consorts have been placed on the exterior in niches in the center of each of the outer walls and on the two sides of the front facade (De Silva, 1990; Jayasuriya, 2016). 

The image house has been built out of stones and bricks along the east-west axis (Abeyawardana, 2004; De Silva, 1990).  It consists of Hewisi Mandapaya (the drumming hall), Antaralaya, and Garbha-gruha (Rajapakse, 2016). The main statue of the shrine is a seated Buddha statue under a Makara Torana [(dragon arch) Abeyawardana, 2004]. Murals and few sculptures are also found in the shrine room. The Stupa of the temple is a construction of the recent past (Abeyawardana, 2004).

Inscriptions
Rock inscriptions
Lankatilaka inscriptions
Two Sinhala and one Tamil inscription are found engraved on the rock to the south of the temple (Paranavitana, 1960). Of the two Sinhala inscriptions, the first one belongs to the reign of King Bhuvanekabahu IV and the other belongs to his successor, King Vikramabahu III [(1357-1374 A.D.) Paranavitana, 1960]. The Tamil inscription is the translation of the Sinhala inscription of  Bhuvanekabahu IV (Abeyawardana, 2004).
 
Another rock inscription belonging to the reign of King Bhuvanekabahu V (1372-1408 A.D.) is found on the rock outside the Vahalkada to the west of the temple (Paranavitana, 1960).
 
Copper-plates
Four copper-plates are preserved in the Lankatilaka temple (Paranavitana, 1960). Of them, one records grants of lands made to the shrine in the reigns of King Sri Rajadhi Rajasinha (1781-1798 A.D.) and his predecessor King Kirti Sri Rajasinghe [(1747-1782 A.D.) Paranavitana, 1960].
 
A protected site
The old Vahalkada, Buddhist shrine, Devale, and the inscriptions of Lankatilaka Vihara situated in the village of Hiyarapitiya in the Divisional Secretary’s Division of Udunuwara are archaeological protected monuments, declared by government gazette notifications published on 16 December 1949, and 23 February 1967. 

Lankatilaka Viharaya .
Attribution
1) Lankathilaka Viharaya 03 by Cherubino is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2004. Heritage of Kandurata: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Colombo: The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. pp.76-77.
2) De Silva, N., 1990. Sri Lankan architecture during the period 1200-1500 A.D.. Wijesekara, N. (Editor in chief). Archaeological Department centenary (1890-1990): Commemorative series: Volume III: Architecture. Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). pp.82-84.
3) Jayasuriya, E., 2016. A guide to the Cultural Triangle of Sri Lanka. Central Cultural Fund. ISBN: 978-955-613-312-7. pp.121-123.
4) Paranavitana, S., 1960. Lankatilaka inscriptions. University of Ceylon Review. Vol. XVIII, Nos. 1 & 2. pp.1-45.
5) Rajapakse, S., 2016. Pauranika Sthana Ha Smaraka: Mahanuwara Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Archaeological Department of Sri Lanka. ISBN:955-9159-34-8. pp.60-61.
6) The Gazette notification of Ceylon. No: 10054. 16 December 1949. 
7) The Gazette notification of Ceylon. No: 14775. 23 February 1967.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 28 January 2021
For a complete tourist map follow this link: Lankapradeepa Tourist Map

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