Buddhism and Sri Lanka

According to Sri Lankan chronicles, Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka in the 3rd century B.C. by Arhant Mahinda, during the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa.

Sri Lankan Inscriptions

The earliest trace of epigraphy in South Asia is said to be found in Sri Lanka. A piece of pottery, dated to circa the 4th century B.C. has been discovered from the Anuradhapura citadel.

Architecture of Sri Lanka

The architecture of Sri lanka has a long history and shows diversed forms and styles, mainly infuenced by their religions and traditional beliefs.

Sri Lankan Antiquities

Inherited from the past, Sri Lanka has a large number of antiques with cultural and historical significance which reflects the glory of past era.

Visit Sri Lanka

Located in the northern waters of the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka is an island blessed with a large number of attractons which has made the country an ideal destination for the tourism.

Friday, April 30, 2021

Kahaththewela Ambalama

Kahaththewela Ambalama
Photo credit: Google street view

The Kahaththewela Ambalama is an old wayside rest situated in Bandarawela in Badulla District, Sri Lanka. 

Ambalama
Ambalamas are traditional resting places built by locals to accommodate wayfarers who were travelling to distant places. 

The Kahaththewela Ambalama is a square-shaped building made of brick and mortar. It is said that there was a Pinthaliya (a water vessel for the use of people) in front of this Ambalama with the date 1927 (Dasanayaka, 2018).

References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2018. Ambalama saha samajaya (In Sinhala). S. Godage & Brothers.  pp.115-116.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 2 May 2021
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Wegiriya Ambalama

Wegiriya Ambalama
Photo credit: Google street view

The Wegiriya Ambalama is an old wayside rest situated in Udunuwara in Kandy District, Sri Lanka. 

Ambalama
Ambalamas are traditional resting places built by locals to accommodate wayfarers who were travelling to distant places. The Ambalama at Wegiriya, as mentioned in its one of the rafters, has been built on 13 January 1925 by a doctor named Jinadasa (Dasanayaka, 2018).

The four large pillars at the corners of this Ambalama are about 10 ft. tall and made out of stone (Dasanayaka, 2018). By connecting these pillars, a short wall prepared for sitting runs around it. However, the heights of this wall differ in each direction and this is probably due to the caste differences that prevailed in the society at the time of its construction. The four-sided roof with an elevated middle portion is paved with Calicut tiles.

References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2018. Ambalama saha samajaya (In Sinhala). S. Godage & Brothers.  p.103.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 2 May 2021
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Poramadulla Ambalama

Poramadulla Ambalama
Photo credit: Google street view

The Poramadulla Ambalama is an old wayside rest situated near Poramadulla Central College in Kandy District, Sri Lanka. 

Ambalama
Ambalamas are traditional resting places built by locals to accommodate wayfarers who were travelling to distant places. The Ambalama at Poramadulla, as mentioned on the wall of it, has been built on 30 April 1923 by a person named Nan Ediri (Dasanayaka, 2018).

This is a square-shaped building with four large pillars at the corners (Dasanayaka, 2018). By connecting these pillars, a short wall runs around it. The four-sided roof is paved with Calicut tiles.

References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2018. Ambalama saha samajaya (In Sinhala). S. Godage & Brothers.  pp.104-105.

Location Map
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Hanguranketha Ambalama

Hanguranketha Ambalama
Photo credit: Google street view

The Hanguranketha Ambalama is an old wayside rest situated near Hanguranketha Pothgul Viharaya in Nuwara Eliya District, Sri Lanka. 

Ambalama
Ambalamas are traditional resting places built by locals to accommodate wayfarers who were travelling to distant places. The Ambalama at Hanguranketha is believed to have been built about 150 years ago (Dasanayaka, 2018). It may have been used by the travellers who came to visit nearby Pothgul Viharaya and Natha Devalaya (Dasanayaka, 2018).

This Ambalama is primarily made out of granite pillars holding a roof with a complex shape (Dasanayaka, 2018). The pillars are shaped but lack decorations. Later, walls had been added to this structure between the pillars to form a few rooms and some of them were used as an Ayurveda medical centre (Dasanayaka, 2018; Wijesinghe, 2015). However, these walls were removed by government authorities to obtain its ancient appearance again.

There is a granite Pinthaliya (a water vessel for the use of people) in front of the Ambalama. A note carved on it reveals that it was donated on 11 September 1905 by a person named Salu Abhaya Gunasekara Lekam (Dasanayaka, 2018).

References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2018. Ambalama saha samajaya (In Sinhala). S. Godage & Brothers.  pp.83-84.
2) Wijesinghe, T.K., 2015. Pauranika Sthana Saha Smaraka: Nuwara Eliya Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 955-9159-36-4. pp.22-23.

Location Map
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Konakalagala Ambalama

Konakalagala Ambalama
Photo credit: Google street view

The Konakalagala Ambalama is an old wayside rest situated in Konakalagala village in Kandy District, Sri Lanka. 

Ambalama
Ambalamas are traditional resting places built by locals to accommodate wayfarers who were travelling to distant places. The Ambalama at Konakalagala is believed to have been built during the reign of King Vimaladharmasuriya II [(1687-1707 A.D.) De Silva & Chandrasekara, 2009]. This is considered to be the first Ambalama found on the ancient route that ran between the Kandyan Kingdom and Trincomalee (Dasanayaka, 2018; De Silva & Chandrasekara, 2009).

It is said that there was a note with a date on one of the wooden seats of this Ambalama, but it has been replaced during a later restoration (Dasanayaka, 2018). The woods that have been used in this building are apparently similar to those found in the Magul Maduwa in Kandy (Dasanayaka, 2018).

As the case of Godamunna Ambalama, this had also been built on a horizontal frame of four wooden beams (balanced on four rock boulders) and its roof was held by four pillars on the corners (Dasanayaka, 2018). During the beginning of the 20th century, it was expanded from all four sides by adding 12 more wooden pillars (Dasanayaka, 2018; De Silva & Chandrasekara, 2009). 

A protected monument
The ancient doss house (Konakagala Ambalama) located in Konakagala village situated in the Grama Niladhari Division of Konakagala in Akurana Divisional Secretary’s Division is an archaeological protected monument, declared by a government gazette notification published on 16 August 2013.
 
References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2018. Ambalama saha samajaya (In Sinhala). S. Godage & Brothers.  pp.68-70.
2) De Silva, N.; Chandrasekara, D.P., 2009. Heritage Buildings of Sri Lanka. Colombo: The National Trust Sri Lanka, ISBN: 978-955-0093-01-4. p.167.
3) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka: Extraordinary No: 1823/73. 16 August 2013. p.3A.

Location Map
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Madanwala Ambalama

Madanwala Ambalama
Photo credit: Google street view

The Madanwala Ambalama is an old wayside rest situated in the Madanwala village near Hanguranketha in Nuwara Eliya District, Sri Lanka. 

Ambalama
Ambalamas are traditional resting places built by locals to accommodate wayfarers who were travelling to distant places. The Ambalama at Madanwala has been built in 1901 by a person named Sangaruwanketha Abayasinghe Appuhami Lekam (Dasanayaka, 2018; Wijesinghe, 2015).

Presently, the Ambalama lies on the wayside of the Hanguranketha-Rikillagaskada road. The structure is square in shape and its four-sided roof is held by 4 stone pillars at the corners of the building (Dasanayaka, 2018).

References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2018. Ambalama saha samajaya (In Sinhala). S. Godage & Brothers.  pp.90-91.
2) Wijesinghe, T.K., 2015. Pauranika Sthana Saha Smaraka: Nuwara Eliya Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 955-9159-36-4. pp.31-32.

Location Map
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Rikillagaskada Ambalama

Rikillagaskada Ambalama
Photo credit: Google street view

The Rikillagaskada Ambalama is an old wayside rest situated in the middle of Rikillagaskada town in Nuwara Eliya District, Sri Lanka. 

Ambalama
Ambalamas are traditional resting places built by locals to accommodate wayfarers who were travelling to distant places. The history of Rikillagaskada Ambalama is found on a trilingual plaque (English, Sinhala, Tamil) fixed on one of the walls of this structure. According to it, this Ambalama has been built in 1787 Saka year (1864 A.D.) by a resident in Rikillagasgoda named Koralalage Don Andris de Silva Appuhami Notaris (Dasanayaka, 2018; Wijesinghe, 2015).

Restorations
The Ambalama was renovated by the Department of Archaeology in late 2017.

A protected monument
The Rikillagaskada Ambalama in the Grama Niladhari Division of Rikillagaskada, in Hanguranketha Divisional Secretary’s Division, is an archaeological protected monument, declared by a government notification published on 6 June 2008.

References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2018. Ambalama saha samajaya (In Sinhala). S. Godage & Brothers.  p.81.
2) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1553. 6 June 2008. p.526.
3) Wijesinghe, T.K., 2015. Pauranika Sthana Saha Smaraka: Nuwara Eliya Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 955-9159-36-4. p.14.

Location Map
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Rukula Ambalama

The Rukula Ambalama is an old wayside rest situated in Rukulagama village in Kegalle District, Sri Lanka. The famous Aluthnuwara Devalaya is situated to the north about a 1-mile distance from this Ambalama.

Ambalama
Ambalamas are traditional resting places built by locals to accommodate wayfarers who were travelling to distant places. According to folklore, the Rukula Ambalama at Rukulagama has been built by an elite lady named Rukula during the Dambadeniya Period [(13th-14th centuries A.D.) Dasanayaka, 2018]. However, some sources say that it was built at the beginning of the 20th century by the aristocrats of the village (De Silva & Chandrasekara, 2009).

Restorations
The Ambalama was restored by villagers in 1982 (Dasanayaka, 2018).

Structure
Presently, the Ambalama lies on the verge of a paddy field. The structure is square in shape and made of brick and mortar (Dasanayaka, 2018). The hipped-roof is held by 12 round brick pillars about 8 ft. tall (Dasanayaka, 2018).

References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2018. Ambalama saha samajaya (In Sinhala). S. Godage & Brothers.  pp.54-55.
2) De Silva, N.; Chandrasekara, D.P., 2009. Heritage Buildings of Sri Lanka. Colombo: The National Trust Sri Lanka, ISBN: 978-955-0093-01-4. p.163.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 21 May 2021
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Monday, April 26, 2021

Namal Oya Wewa

Namal Oya Wewa
Namal Oya Wewa is a reservoir situated about 10 km north of Senanayaka Samudraya in Ampara District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This was newly constructed by the Gal Oya Development Board in 1961-1962 (Arumugam, 1969). However, some ancient constructions that have been discovered from Namal Oya reservoir area indicate the early human activities at the site.

The reservoir
The reservoir has been constructed by damming the Namal Oya stream (Arumugam, 1969). The bund of the reservoir is about 1.25 miles long and the water is extending in an area of about 1,600 acres at its full supply level (Arumugam, 1969). It has one spill and one sluice (Arumugam, 1969). 

A protected site
The ancient constructions in the middle of Namal Oya lake belonging to Namaloya village situated in the Grama Niladhari Division No. W/86C/005, Dambethalawa in the Divisional Secretary’s Division Ampara are archaeological protected monuments, declared by a government gazette notification published on 10 October 2014. 
 
Attribution
1) Namal Oya reservoir by Aldshakya is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

References
1) Arumugam, S., 1969. Water resources of Ceylon: its utilisation and development. Water Resources Board. p.165.
2) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1884. 10 October 2014. p.922.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 1 May 2021
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Chandrika Wewa

Chandrika Wewa
Chandrika Wewa is a reservoir situated near Embilipitiya in Ratnapura District, Sri Lanka. 

History
The tank was filled with water for the first time in 1963 (Arumugam, 1969).

The reservoir
The reservoir has been constructed by damming the Hulanda Oya, a tributary of Walawe Ganga (Arumugam, 1969). The bund of the reservoir is about 1.25 miles long and the water is extending in an area of about 1,100 acres at its full supply level (Arumugam, 1969). It has one spill and one sluice (Arumugam, 1969). 

Attribution

References
1) Arumugam, S., 1969. Water resources of Ceylon: its utilisation and development. Water Resources Board. p.112.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 26 April 2021
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Kuragala

Kuragala
Kuragala is an archaeological site consisting of the ruins of an ancient Buddhist cave temple situated in Balangoda, in Ratnapura District, Sri Lanka.

A prehistoric site
An excavation done in 2012-2013 in Kuragala revealed evidence of prehistoric occupation and a field survey in 2014 recorded prehistoric tools on the northern slope of the hillock (Deegalle, 2019; Somadeva et al., 2014). The human specimens found from this site have been dated by scholars to the period between 12,000 and 4000 cal yr B.P (Roberts et al., 2015).

Buddhist ruins
Ruins of an ancient Buddhist monastery dating back to the 2nd century B.C. have been found from the site (Abeyawardana, 2002; Deegalle, 2019). The drip-ledged caves (cave shelters), early-Brahmi inscriptions, Siri Pathul Gala (the rock-cut footprint of the Buddha) and the remains of an ancient Stupa (now conserved) indicate that the site was occupied by Buddhist monks as their dwellings (Deegalle, 2019; Gnanawimala Thera, 1967). According to Buddhist belief, this site had been known in ancient times as Thundulaiyaka Pabbata (Gnanawimala Thera, 1967). An ancient tunnel is also said to have found in this place (Abeyawardana, 2002).
 
Cave shelters
Kuragala inscription
The drip-ledged cave shelters were prepared in ancient times by their donors as religious gifts to support the monkhood in Sri Lanka and these caves provided shelter for monks during the annual rainy season (vassa) retreat as prescribed in Theravada Buddhist tradition (McGilvray, 2016). Thus, the drip-ledged caves at Kuragala, like more than 1,200 others scattered across the island, were evidently Buddhist merit-earning gifts from locally powerful chiefs, constructed in the hope that some pious monks might occupy them for three monsoon months every year (McGilvray, 2016).

The Stupa controversy
The remains of an ancient Stupa at one of the three peaks at Kuragala were conserved in the early 1970s by the Department of Archaeology and now it has been declared as an archaeological protected monument (Deegalle, 2019). According to the account given by Gnanawimala Thera in 1967, this Stupa had been vandalized along with the Siri Pathul Gala by the occupants at Kuragala Muslim shrine (Gnanawimala Thera, 1967). 
 
Some observers, including Aboosally (see the below "Muslim shrine: Daftar Jailani" section), have alleged that this Stupa is a modern construction built by the Department of Archaeology using local bricks and Kankesanthurai cement, and the construction of it was stopped half as Jailani trustees obtain a cabinet order (Deegalle, 2019; McGilvray, 2004). However, according to the view of Deegalle, this is a misinterpretation of the original situation (Deegalle, 2019). The Register of Ancient Monuments published in 1972 by the Ministry of Cultural Affairs clearly mentions there were remains of a brick-built Stupa in one of the rocks hummocks at Kuragala (Deegalle, 2019).
On a craggy site…is the ancient Buddhist monastic site of Kuragala. At the site are several drip-ledged caves. Some of which contain Brahmi inscriptions of the second and first centuries BC. On one of the rock hummocks here are the remains of a brick built dagoba [stūpa]” (ibid.: 702)
Citation: Deegalle, 2019. p.11.
Also, the notice issued by the Department of Archaeology on 13 September 1972, confirms that they had commenced the conservation works of an ancient Stupa at the site (Deegalle, 2019). It further has mentioned that they had no intention to build a new Stupa at Kuragala (Deegalle, 2019).

Muslim shrine: Daftar Jailani
Besides the Buddhists, Muslim devotees also perform religious rites at a shrine at Kuragala (Abeyawardana, 2002). Known by the name Daftar Jailani, this shrine is considered one of the few Sufi shrines in Sri Lanka (McGilvray, 2004; McGilvray, 2016).

Aboosally's book
The only available history of this Daftar Jailani shrine is a self-published book written by the late chief trustee, M.L.M. Aboosally, who had served as a long-standing United National Party (UNP) member of parliament and cabinet minister representing the Balangoda constituency from 1977–1994, and whose father and grandfather led the first efforts to establish Jailani as a saintly shrine (McGilvray, 2016). According to this book, the history of Kuragala is related to Sheikh Muhiyadeen Abdul Qadir Jilani (1077-1166 A.D., buried in Baghdad, Pakistan), the founder of the Qādiriyya, a Sufi order that is widespread in South Asia as well as in Southeast Asia, and is found throughout the Muslim world (Deegalle, 2019; Kalus & Guillot, 2006; McGilvray, 2016). It is said that he meditated for 12 years in a rock cave at Daftar Jailani after paying his respect to Sri Pada mountain (McGilvray, 2004; McGilvray, 2016). However, the shrine itself preserves no evidence to substantiate this claim (Deegalle, 2019; McGilvray, 2016).
 
As further mentioned in Aboosally's book, Kuragala had been used by many Muslim pilgrims as a resting place and later on as a place of prayer (Kalus & Guillot, 2006; McGilvray, 2016). 
 
Construction of the present shrine
As recorded in the book, it was a South Indian Muslim of Lakshadweep origin, who visited Balangoda in 1857 and first discovered the precise location of Jailani, which is said to have known previously only by legend (McGilvray, 2004; McGilvray, 2016). In 1875, his nephew came from India, enlisted the aid of local Muslims to clear the Kuragala site, and eventually married and settled in the same area (McGilvray, 2016). By the late 19th century, the existence of a Muslim shrine at Kuragala had been noted by colonial government agents in Ratnapura (Collins, 1932; Deegalle, 2019; McGilvray, 2016).
 
The present Muslim shrine under the Hituwangala rock at Kuragala was built in 1922 by C.L.M. Marikar Hajiyar, the father of M.L.M. Aboosally (McGilvray, 2004; McGilvray, 2016). The rock-cut flight of steps that lead to the Jailani shrine is said to have been cut in 1984 with the help of a wealthy Muslim donor from Chilaw (McGilvray, 2004).
 
Arabic writings: non-authentic?
The book also lists a certain number of Arabic writings, carvings and tombstone dating back from the Hijri year 300 [(907 A.D.) Kalus & Guillot, 2006]. However, Kalus and Guillot who published a scholarly article in 2006 about Arabic inscriptions in Sri Lanka revealed that the Arabic inscriptions in Kuragala are certainly recent although they contain old Hijri years such as 300, 715, 718, 883, 1318 (see the below "Inscriptions" section). Except for the inscription depicting Hijri year 1318, all the other inscriptions were listed by them in their article as non authentic (Kalus & Guillot, 2006).

The Dutch painting: depicting a Buddhist shrine?
A watercolour painting created in 1785 by Jan Brandes, after anonymous, is currently in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, Netherlands and it has been titled "Islamitisch rotsheiligdom van Kuragala op Ceylon" which means the "Islamic rock shrine of Kuragala in Ceylon". Although the landscape that is depicted in the painting has not been identified, some believe that it shows the early Muslim shrine at Kuragala. However, the Muragalas (guard stones) and the Makara Torana (dragon arch) that are depicted in the painting associated with the entrance of the cave chamber indicate that it is probably a Buddhist cave temple. Muragalas and Makara Torana are common architectural elements of Buddhist temples and are not found in Islamic shrines or mosques in Sri Lanka.

Inscriptions
Sinhalese inscriptions
Revealing the evidence of the ancient Buddhist cave monastery, three early-Brahmi inscriptions dating to the 3rd century B.C. have been found from the site (Deegalle, 2019; Gnanawimala Thera, 1967; Paranavitana, 1970).

Kuragala early-Brahmi inscription I
Period: 2nd-1st century B.C.                Script: Early-Brahmi                Language: Old Sinhala
Transcript: ......................dataha Samudaha lene
Translation: The cave of ...................... datta [and] of Samudda
Citation: Paranavitana, 1970. p.59.

Arabic inscriptions
There is a certain number of Arabic inscriptions in Kuragala. Of them, some were published in 2006 in a French scholarly article by Kalus and Guillot (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). According to Kalus and Guillot, only one inscription (below 5th inscription) is probably original and others are non-authentic and recently originated (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). 
 
(I) Inscription of Hijri year 300 (907 A.D.): A stone with the Arabic carving "Ya Allah Hijri 300". Identified as non-authentic by Kalus and Guillot (Kalus & Guillot, 2006; McGilvray, 2016).
(II) Inscription of Hijri year 715 (1315 A.D.): A tombstone with the words "Darvesh Mohiyadeen Darvesh 715". Identified as non-authentic by Kalus and Guillot (Kalus & Guillot, 2006).
(III) Cave inscription of Hijri year 718: This inscription was identified as non-authentic by Kalus and Guillot (Kalus & Guillot, 2006)
(IV) Inscription of Hijri year 883: A tombstone with the word "Rookeetam Roohullah 883". Identified as non-authentic by Kalus and Guillot (Kalus & Guillot, 2006).
(V) Inscription of Hijri year 1318: A tombstone with the word "Sheikh Muhammed 1318" (Kalus & Guillot, 2006).
 
The opinion of Kalus and Guillot about the Kuragala Muslim shrine and its inscriptions has been given in their article as follows;
Text (In French): En parcourant le site et à la lecture du texte de M.L.M. Aboosally cité plusieurs fois cidessus, on acquiert vite la conviction que l'occupation du site par la petite colonie musulmane est récente, elle remonterait à la 2ème moitié du XIXe siècle. Il s'agit sans doute d'un ancien lieu sacré non musulman revendiqué actuellement par les musulmans. Les traditions qui s'y rattachent sont naturellement à prendre avec précautions, voire à rejeter. Les inscriptions énumérées ici sont certainement récentes et leurs «interprétations » actuelles se situent au même niveau que les traditions évoquées.
Translation: By browsing the site and reading the text of M.L.M. Aboosally quoted several times above, we quickly acquired the conviction that the occupation of the site by the small colony Muslim is recent, it dates back to the 2nd half of the 19th century. It is undoubtedly an ancient non-Muslim sacred place currently claimed by the Muslims. The traditions attached to it are naturally to be taken with care, or even to reject. The inscriptions listed here are certainly recent and their current interpretations are at the same level as the traditions mentioned.
Citation: Kalus & Guillot, 2006. p.65.
Kuragala: a Buddhist or Muslim place of worship?
The British rulers governed Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) from 1815 to 1948. The Ceylon Administration Reports prepared by them for the years 1919, 1922, 1923 mention Kuragala as a Muhammadan pilgrimage site (Deegalle, 2019). In the report for the year 1927, it is mentioned that Kuragala was frequented by Muslims (Deegalle, 2019). An article published by Collins in 1932, records that Kuragala was a great place of Muslim pilgrimage, though other religionists also claim it (Collins, 1932). The Buddhist monk Gnanawimala Thera mentions that he visited the site in 1939 (Gnanawimala Thera, 1967).
 
After gaining independence from the British in 1948, the Ceylon Administration Reports were published by the government focusing more on history, archaeology, and monuments etc. (Deegalle, 2019). The Department of Archaeology, after a field visit to explore the monuments at Kuragala, published details about the site in the Sri Lanka Administrative Report for 1968-1969 as follows;
This area that contains Brahmi inscriptions with drip-ledged caves has now turned into a mosque of Muslim devotees. There are modern constructions of several buildings at the site” (SLAR 1968– 1969: G31).
Citation: Deegalle, 2019. p.10.
In the early 1970s, a group of Buddhist monks backed by Mallika Ratwatte (MP for Balangoda) staged a protest to take the Kuragala for Buddhist worship (McGilvray, 2016). In 1971, the Department of Archaeology designated Kuragala as an archaeological reserve containing the remains of a Buddhist monastery circa 2nd century B.C. (McGilvray, 2016). The Register of Ancient Monuments that was published in 1972 by the Ministry of Cultural Affairs recorded three archaeological sites in the geographical area known as Kuragala and it included Galtemyaya, Kuragala, and Budugala (Deegalle, 2019).

Again in the early 2010s, several campaigns led by a few Buddhist organizations such as Jathika Hela Urumaya (JHU), Bodu Bala Sena (BBS), and Sinhala Ravaya pressured the then government in the purpose of occupying Kuragala for the worship of Buddhists (Deegalle, 2019; McGilvray, 2016). As a result of these campaigns, all the modern structures (shops, kitchens, restrooms etc.) were removed from the area of the archaeological reserve, except for the mosque and the exposed Muslim tombs (McGilvray, 2016).
 
An archaeological reserve
The Kuragala (consist of 52 acres, 2 roods, 19 perches) in Uggal Kaltota and Thanjatenna villages in the Divisional Secretary’s Division, Balangoda is an archaeological reserve, declared by a government Gazette notification published on 3 December 1971.

References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2002. Heritage of Sabaragamuwa: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Sabaragamuwa Development Bank and The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 955-575-077-7. pp.28-29.
2) Collins, C.H., 1932. The archaeology of the Sabaragamuwa Bintenna. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. XXXII, No 85. pp.158-184.
3) Deegalle, V.M., 2019. Kuragala: Religious and Ethnic Communities in a Contested Sacred Heritage Site in Sri Lanka. In Archaeology, Cultural Heritage Protection and Community Engagement in South Asia (pp. 45-58). Palgrave Pivot, Singapore.
4) Gnanawimala Thera, K., 1967. Saparagamu Darshana (In Sinhala). S. Godage Saha Sahodarayo. pp.18-20,264-271.
5) Kalus, L. and Guillot, C., 2006. Réinterprétation des plus anciennes stèles funéraires islamiques nousantariennes: III. Sri Lanka (In French). Archipel, 72(1), pp.64-65.
6) McGilvray, D.B., 2004. Jailani: A Sufi Shrine in Sri Lanka. Lived Islam in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation & Conflict, pp.273-289.
7) McGilvray, D.B., 2016. Islamic and Buddhist impacts on the shrine at Daftar Jailani, Sri Lanka. Islam, Sufism and everyday politics of belonging in South Asia, pp.62-76
8) Paranavitana, S., 1970. Inscriptions of Ceylon: Volume I: Early Brahmi Inscriptions. Department of Archaeology Ceylon. p.59.
9) Roberts, P., Perera, N., Wedage, O., Deraniyagala, S., Perera, J., Eregama, S., Gledhill, A., Petraglia, M.D. and Lee-Thorp, J.A., 2015. Direct evidence for human reliance on rainforest resources in late Pleistocene Sri Lanka. Science, 347(6227), pp.1246-1249.
10) Somadeva, R., Vanninayaka, A., Devage, D., 2014. Kaltota Gaveshanaya, 2014. Adiyara 1 (In Sinhala). pp.6-12,30-32.
11) The Gazette notification. no: 14987. 3 December 1971. 
 
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Saturday, April 24, 2021

Sanskrit Inscriptions in Sri Lanka

A small number (20 or more) of Sanskrit inscriptions have been found in Sri Lanka (Dhammaratana, 2000). However, there is a significant number of inscriptions written in other languages (such as Sinhala and Tamil) with some portions of Sanskrit prose or verses. Devanagari, Pallava Grantha and Sinhala are the common scripts used in these inscriptions (Dhammaratana, 2000).

Scholars have dated these inscriptions to the period between the 5th-13th centuries A.D. (Dhammaratana, 2000). 

The list of Sanskrit inscriptions
This is an incomplete list prepared by "Lanka Pradeepa".
 
No. Inscription Remarks References
1 Kuchchaveli inscription
(Trincomalee District)
The script is unique (similar to early-Grantha script)
5-8th century A.D.
Paranavitana, 1933;
Dhammaratana, 2000
2 Trikayastava inscription
(Anuradhapura District)
Pallava Grantha script
7-8th century A.D.
Dhammaratana, 2000
3/4 Tiriyaya inscriptions
(Trincomalee District)
Pallava Grantha script
7-8th century A.D.
Paranavitana, 1934;
Dhammaratana, 2000
5 Jetavanarama gold plates
(Anueadhapura District)
Sinhala script of the Pallava Grantha type
9th century A.D.
Dhammaratana, 2000
6 Indikatuseya copper plaques
(Anuradhapura District)
Sinhala script
8-9th century A.D.
Paranavitana, 1933;
Dhammaratana, 2000
7 A verse from Sigiri graffiti
(Matale District)
Pallava Grantha script
8-10th century A.D.
Dhammaratana, 2000
8 Jetavanarama slab inscription
(Anuradhapura District)
A variety of Magadha Nagari script
9th century A.D.
Wickremasinghe, 1912;
Dhammaratana, 2000
9 Anuradhapura copper plaques
(Anuradhapura District)
Devanagari script
9th century A.D.
Dhammaratana, 2000
10 Indikatuseya gold sheet
(Anuradhapura District)
Sinhala and Devanagari scripts
9th century A.D.
Dhammaratana, 2000;
11 Rajagirilenakanda inscription
(Anuradhapura District)
Devanagari script
9th century A.D.
Dhammaratana, 2000
12 Vijayarama copper plaques
(Anuradhapura District)
Sinhala script
9th century A.D.
Dhammaratana, 2000
13 Abhayagiri Dharanis
(Anuradhapura District)
North-eastern Nagari, Sinhala scripts
9-10th century A.D.
Dhammaratana, 2000
14 Pabalu Vehera copper plaques
(Polonnaruwa District)
Sinhala script
9-10th century A.D.
Dhammaratana, 2000
15 Jetavanarama copper plaques
(Anuradhapura District)
Devanagari script
10th century A.D.
Dhammaratana, 2000;
Paranavitana, 1933
16 Kapararama slab inscription
(Anuradhapura District)
Grantha and Sinhala scripts
10th century A.D.
Ranawella, 2004;
Dhammaratana, 2000
17 Trincomalee fragmentary inscription
(Anuradhapura District)
Pallava Grantha
12th century A.D.
Dhammaratana, 2000
18 Anaulundava slab inscription
(Polonnaruwa District)
Sinhala script
12-13th century A.D.
Wickremasinghe, 1928;
Dhammaratana, 2000
19 Padaviya rock inscription
(Trincomalee District)
Pallava Grantha script
13th century A.D.
Pathmanathan, 1975;
Dhammaratana, 2000
20 Diyagampala inscription
(Gampaha District)
??
??
??

References
1) Dhammaratana, I., 2000. Sanskrit Inscriptions in Sri Lanka: A thesis submitted to the University of Pune in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Sanskrit. Department of Sanskrit & Prakrit Languages, University of Pune, India. pp.172-445,510,519.
2) Paranavitana, S., 1933. (Edited and translated by Wickremasinghe, D.M.D.Z.; Codrington, H.W.) A note on the Abhayagiri copper plate inscription. Epigraphia Zeylanica: Being lithic and other inscriptions of Ceylon: Vol. III. Printed at the Department of Government Printing, Sri Lanka (Ceylon) for the Archeological Department. pp.158-161,169-171,199-212.
3) Paranavitana, S., 1934. (Edited and translated by Codrington, H.W.; Paranavitana, S.) Tiriyay rock-inscription. Epigraphia Zeylanica: Being lithic and other inscriptions of Ceylon: Vol. IV. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon. pp.151-160. 
4) Pathmanathan, S., 1975. The Velaikkara inscription at Padaviya. சுவாமி ஞானப்பிரகாசர் நூற்றாண்டு மலர். pp.25-29,80-81.
5) Ranawella, G.S., 2004. Inscription of Ceylon: Containing pillar inscriptions and slab inscriptions from 924 AD to 1017. Volume V, Part II. Department of Archaeology. pp.286-287.
6) Wickremasinghe, D.M.D.Z., 1912. Epigraphia Zeylanica: Being lithic and other inscription of Ceylon: Vol. I. London. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon. pp.1-9,39-40.
7) Wickremasinghe, D. M. D. Z., 1928. Epigraphia Zeylanica: Being lithic and other inscriptions of Ceylon: Vol, II. Published for the government of Ceylon by Humphrey Milford. pp.235-237.

This page was last updated on 8 May 2021
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Friday, April 23, 2021

Gin Ganga River

Gin Ganga is considered one of the important rivers in southern Sri Lanka. 

The river originates from the Gongala mountains in Deniyaya (Wickramaarachchi et al., 2012; Wijesiri, 2015). It drains part of the southern province and passes Udugama, Mapalagama, Agaliya, and Baddegama (Seneviratne, 2011). After travelling about 112.5 km, it eventually empties into the Indian Ocean at Gintota in Galle District (Seneviratne, 2011; Wickramaarachchi et al., 2012). It annually discharges about 1268 million cubic meters to sea (Wickramaarachchi et al., 2012).

The streams draining to Gin Ganga include Holuwagoda Ela, Keembi Ela- Puhulduwa Ela, Galagoda Puhulduwa Ela, Unanviti Ela, Mamina Dola, Kudawa Ganga, Halpatota Ela and Kudubiri Ela, Divithura Ela, Maben Ela, Therun Ela, Gonala Ela, and Malamure Ela (Seneviratne, 2011).

River basin
The Gin Ganga river has a catchment area of about 932 km2 (Wickramaarachchi et al., 2012; Wijesiri, 2015). Nearly 83% of the catchment belongs to Galle district and the balance shared by Matara, Kalutara and Ratnapura Districts (Wijesiri, 2015). The catchment consists of mainly natural and plantation forest, agriculture and settlements of communities (Wijesiri, 2015)

References
1) Seneviratne, L.W., 2011. Environmental changes in irrigation and flood control schemes: a case study of Gin Ganga regulation project. A dissertation submitted to the University of Moratuwa as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering in Environmental Engineering and Management. pp.1,14.
2) Wickramaarachchi, T.N., Ishidaira, H. and Wijayaratna, T.M.N., 2012. An Application of Distributed Hydrological Model, YHyM/BTOPMC to Gin Ganga Watershed, Sri Lanka. ENGINEER, 45(02), pp.31-40.
3) Wijesiri, I.D., Chaminda, G.G.T. and Silva, G.H.A.C., 2015. Catchment Protection of Gin Ganga (River) as part of Water Safety Plan (WSP) in Greater Galle Water Supply Scheme (GGWSS). 6th International Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction Management 2015, Kandy, Sri Lanka. pp.169-176.

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Monday, April 19, 2021

Nicholson’s Cove Arabic Inscription, Trincomalee

Nicholson’s cove Arabic Inscription
Trincomalee Nicholson’s Cove Arabic Inscription is one of the Arabic Inscriptions in Sri Lanka

A tombstone
This slab which has been identified as a tombstone was discovered in February 1939, by some workers who were working near two wells in the Nicholson's Cove area (Devendra, 1968). Nearly 3 decades after Somasiri Devendra, the Instructor Lieut. Commander (Royal Ceylon Navy) brought it to the attention of scholars through an article published in 1968 (Devendra, 1968).

The inscription has been engraved on a white marble slab from the Rajasthan, originally rectangular (at least in its lower part) in shape (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). The slab is 19 inches long, 16 inches wide and 2.25 inches thick and the characters on it are in sunken relief (Dasanayaka, 2017; Devendra, 1968). Six lines of writing with the remains of a seventh can be observed on the slab and these lines are flanked by two vertical columns which are also inscribed (Dasanayaka, 2017; Devendra, 1968; Kalus & Guillot, 2006).
 
This relates to the grave of the noble, the pious and the chaste lady, daughter of the Amir Badru-d-din Hussain, son of Ali al-Halabi (Dasanayaka, 2017). She was taken away on Monday the 17th Dhul-Qa’da 729 (or 929) A.H. (Dasanayaka, 2017). According to Kalus & Guillot, this inscription can be dated to 729 A.H. (1329 A.D.) or 929 A.H. [(1523 A.D.) Kalus & Guillot, 2006].

References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2017. Arabs in Serandib: Trade relations between Sri Lanka and West Asia from ancient time to 15th century A. D.: Historical and Archaeological Survey. S. Godage & Brothers. ISBN: 978-955-30. pp.347-349.
2) Devendra, S., 1968. Arabic Gravestone from Trincomalee Dockyard. The Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society: New Series: Vol XIV. pp.28-35.
3) Kalus, L. and Guillot, C., 2006. Réinterprétation des plus anciennes stèles funéraires islamiques nousantariennes: III. Sri Lanka (In French). Archipel, 72(1), pp.53-59.

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Sunday, April 18, 2021

Anuradhapura-Puttalam road Arabic Inscription

Anuradhapura-Puttalam road Arabic Inscription
Anuradhapura-Puttalam road Arabic inscription is one of the Arabic Inscriptions in Sri Lanka.

This slab with an inscription is said to have discovered from a place on the wayside of Anuradhapura-Puttalam road (Kalus & Guillot, 2006).
 
The inscription has been inscribed on the vertical side of a rectangular slab. It is written in Kufic script with leafy or flowery ends (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). The inscription has been dated to the 9th century A.D. (Dasanayaka, 2017).
 
References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2017. Arabs in Serandib: Trade relations between Sri Lanka and West Asia from ancient time to 15th century A. D.: Historical and Archaeological Survey. S. Godage & Brothers. ISBN: 978-955-30. pp.352-353.
2) Kalus, L. and Guillot, C., 2006. Réinterprétation des plus anciennes stèles funéraires islamiques nousantariennes: III. Sri Lanka (In French). Archipel, 72(1), pp.18-22.


This page was last updated on 18 April 2021
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Ellupitty Arabic Inscription

Ellupitty Arabic Inscription
Ellupitty Arabic Inscription is one of the Arabic Inscriptions in Sri Lanka.

This has been identified as a tombstone (Dasanayaka, 2017). The slab on which the inscription has been inscribed is fragmentary and believed to be rectangular in shape (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). The remaining portion contains 5 lines of writing but the first and the last lines are considerably damaged. It is written in Kufic script with leafy or flowery ends (Kalus & Guillot, 2006).
 
Content
Elupitiya tombstone with the Arabic inscription
Transcript: (1) Khalafa minad dunya wa tarakaha (2) ......ata faqiran ilaika wa anta ...... (3) nasals bika wa anta .....
Translation: Left the world and abandoned it......came to you depending on you are the ......Descended upon you, you are the......
Citation: Dasanayaka, 2017. p.349.
 
References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2017. Arabs in Serandib: Trade relations between Sri Lanka and West Asia from ancient time to 15th century A. D.: Historical and Archaeological Survey. S. Godage & Brothers. ISBN: 978-955-30. p.349.
2) Kalus, L. and Guillot, C., 2006. Réinterprétation des plus anciennes stèles funéraires islamiques nousantariennes: III. Sri Lanka (In French). Archipel, 72(1), pp.22-24.


This page was last updated on 18 April 2021
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Trincomalee Dockyard Arabic Inscription

Trincomalee Dockyard Arabic Inscription
Trincomalee Dockyard Arabic Inscription is one of the Arabic Inscriptions in Sri Lanka. It is presently on the display at the Stone Gallery of Colombo National Museum.

A tombstone
This Rajasthan marble slab which has been identified as a tombstone was unearthed during World War II (1939-1945 A.D.) by workmen who were excavating a site for laying water pipes near Ostenberg Point No. I and Chappel Hill in Nicholson's house overlooking Trincomalee harbour (Dasanayaka, 2017; Kalus & Guillot, 2006). After keeping it in the Kachcheri premises for a few days, the slab was later brought to the museum in May 1963 (Dasanayaka, 2017; Kalus & Guillot, 2006).

The slab is rectangular in shape while its upper part has a multifoil arch shape. Its total height is 0.94 m (height of the arch 0.32 m) and the width is 0.49 m [(except the arch) Kalus & Guillot, 2006]. The writing has been engraved on the edge of the arch, inside the arch, both sides of the lamp, in the horizontal strip separating the arch from the lower part, in the rectangular field consisting of seven lines, and on the strip that runs around the border. The slab is ornamented with leaf and flower designs. The calligraphy of the inscription is typically Hispano-Arab [(Arabesque) Kalus & Guillot, 2006].
 
The inscription is written in early Naskhi or Rayhani which was in use in early Eastern Islam between the 5th and 7th Century after Hijra (Dasanayaka, 2017; Kalus & Guillot, 2006). It records the death of the martyr, Qadi 'Atifu' d-Din 'Abdu'llah son of Abdu'r Rahman son of Muhammad son of Yusuf al-'Alaw (Dasanayaka, 2017; Kalus & Guillot, 2006). Besides the main writing, it also contains some verses (27/80, 27/31) from Quran (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). This inscription has been dated in A.H. 808 Safar 19 [(16 August 1405) Kalus & Guillot, 2006].
 
References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2017. Arabs in Serandib: Trade relations between Sri Lanka and West Asia from ancient time to 15th century A. D.: Historical and Archaeological Survey. S. Godage & Brothers. ISBN: 978-955-30. pp.207-208,350-351.
2) Kalus, L. and Guillot, C., 2006. Réinterprétation des plus anciennes stèles funéraires islamiques nousantariennes: III. Sri Lanka (In French). Archipel, 72(1), pp.47-52.

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Puliyantivu Arabic Inscription

Puliyanativu Arabic Inscription
Puliyantivu Arabic Inscription is one of the Arabic Inscriptions in Sri Lanka. It is presently on the display at the Stone Gallery of Colombo National Museum.

A tombstone
This fragmentary stone slab which has been identified as a tombstone was discovered in Puliyantivu island in Mannar District (Dasanayaka, 2017; Kalus & Guillot, 2006). It was brought to the museum in about 1920 (Kalus & Guillot, 2006).
 
Only the upper part of a stone slab that was originally rectangular in shape is remaining today (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). The Arabic inscription on it consists of 6 lines (Only five lines are visible on the slab in Colombo National Museum. The remaining line is not visible due to its basement) and its upper part is decorated with a semi-circular arch (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). Some letters are also found on the upper part of both left and right corners.
 
The inscription has been written in Kufic scripts which flourished in the early centuries of Islam [(7th century A.D.) Dasanayaka, 2017; Kalus & Guillot, 2006]. Depending on the style of writing, this is assumed to be a work belonging to the 4th century Hijra [(9th century A.D.) Dasanayaka, 2017].

Content
Puliyantivu tombstone with the Arabic inscription
Period: 9th century A.D.                    Language: Arabic                    Script: Kufic
Transcript: (1) Alhamdu lillah (2) Bismillah hir Rahman ar-Rahim (3) La ila illallahu.....>>
Translation: (1) All praise be to Allah (2) In the name of Allah, the beneficent, the merciful (3) There is no god but Allah.....>>
Citation: Dasanayaka, 2017. p.345.
 
References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2017. Arabs in Serandib: Trade relations between Sri Lanka and West Asia from ancient time to 15th century A. D.: Historical and Archaeological Survey. S. Godage & Brothers. ISBN: 978-955-30. pp.344-345.
2) Kalus, L. and Guillot, C., 2006. Réinterprétation des plus anciennes stèles funéraires islamiques nousantariennes: III. Sri Lanka (In French). Archipel, 72(1), pp.27-29.

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Mantai Arabic Inscription

Mantai Arabic Inscription
Mantai Arabic Inscription is one of the Arabic Inscriptions in Sri Lanka. It is presently on the display at the Stone Gallery of Colombo National Museum.

A tombstone
This stone slab which has been identified as a tombstone is said to have been discovered from a site in Mantai in Mannar District (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). However, as mentioned in some sources, it was discovered from a place in Jawatta in Colombo District (Dasanayaka, 2017).
 
The slab is rectangular in shape and its lower part apparently has been cut with some instrument (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). The height of the slab is 0.97 m and the width of it slightly differs at the top (0.51 m) and the bottom [(0.47 m) Kalus & Guillot, 2006]. The writing has been engraved within a rectangular frame with an arch-shaped top. Ten lines of writing are visible on the slab and the first three lines are engraved within the arch.
 
The inscription records the death of Yazid, son of Al-Marzuban, son of Mahwaih (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). It does not mention a date but that may have included in the lower part of the record which is mission today (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). Depending on the characters of the record, it has been dated to the 11th century A.D. (Kalus & Guillot, 2006).
 
References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2017. Arabs in Serandib: Trade relations between Sri Lanka and West Asia from ancient time to 15th century A. D.: Historical and Archaeological Survey. S. Godage & Brothers. ISBN: 978-955-30. p.148.
2) Kalus, L. and Guillot, C., 2006. Réinterprétation des plus anciennes stèles funéraires islamiques nousantariennes: III. Sri Lanka (In French). Archipel, 72(1), pp.40-43.

Location Map
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Jawatta Arabic Inscription

Jawatta Arabic Inscription
Jawatta Arabic Inscription is one of the Arabic Inscriptions in Sri Lanka. This is considered the first Arabic epigraph found in the country (Dasanayaka, 2017).

A tombstone
This stone slab which has been identified as a tombstone is said to have been discovered from a cemetery in Jawatta in Colombo District (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). Around 1787, the slab was moved along with other stones to be used as a walk in the house of a Dutch official [(Collector of Colombo) Dasanayaka, 2017; Kalus & Guillot, 2006]. There are no clear reports about the original inscription and only a facsimile by Sir Alexander Johnston is remaining today (Johnston, 1826; Kalus & Guillot, 2006).
 
The slab is believed to be rectangular in shape and its dimensions are not known (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). The writing has been engraved within a rectangular frame with an arch-shaped top. Fifteen lines of writing are visible on the slab and the first two lines are engraved inside the arch.
 
The stone is dated on 5th Rajab AH 337 (some sources say it 317) and has been erected in memory of Khalid Ibn Abu Bakaya (Dasanayaka, 2017; Kalus & Guillot, 2006). He is said to have been sent to Sri Lanka from Baghdad (Iraq) by Caliph Al-Muktafi bi'llah as a religious teacher in 940 A.D. at the request of the Muslims (Dasanayaka, 2017; Kalus & Guillot, 2006). He died 17 years after he left Baghdad and buried in Colombo (Kalus & Guillot, 2006). On his death, the Caliph sent a stone inscribed in Arabic (Kufic) giving particulars about his teacher and it was placed on the grave of Abu Bakaya by the Muslim community in Colombo (Dasanayaka, 2017; Dewaraja, 1994). The stone is said to be there undisturbed for nearly 800 years, till a Dutch official removed it along with other stones to be used as a walk-in his house (Dasanayaka, 2017; Dewaraja, 1994).

Content
After knowing about this inscribed stone, Sir Alexander Johnston, the Chief Justice of Ceylon (1806-1819 A.D.) took a facsimile of it and sent to England for translation (Dasanayaka, 2017; Johnston, 1826). It was translated by Sir Samuel Lee Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge and his translation into English was as follows;
In the name of the compassionate and merciful GOD. There is no God but God. Mohammed is the prophet of God. May the blessing and peace of God be upon him. O God pardon, have mercy upon, and pass away from (the sins of) a servant, the son of thy servant, Khalid Ibn Abu Bakdya (Takaya or Nakaya), (who) has left the world, and (who) was dependent on thee; but thou wast sufficient without him : (who) has departed to thee, and thou art his best place of departure. O God pardon his sin, that his piety may remain, and grant him his last (reward), and that he may be justified. And protect thou, and multiply favour and security to him. And may he (God) appoint our excellent prophet supreme, that he may afford to us and shew us the truth clearly ; for he has admonished with the established word, and his decision has obtained, and his resistance is (as) the (depth) lake of reproach. Amen. Lord of Worlds. It was written on the second day (of the week) five nights taken out of (the month) Rejeb (i. e. on the 5th of Rejeb) in the year 337.* And in the vicinity he completed a security for religion with (other) conveniences, in the year 317. May God give blessing and peace upon his prophet Mohammed
Citation: Lee, 1827. p.546.
References
1) Dasanayaka, R., 2017. Arabs in Serandib: Trade relations between Sri Lanka and West Asia from ancient time to 15th century A. D.: Historical and Archaeological Survey. S. Godage & Brothers. ISBN: 978-955-30. p.145-148.
2) Dewaraja, L.S., 1994. The Muslims of Sri Lanka: one thousand years of ethnic harmony, 900-1915. Lanka Islamic Foundation.pp.27-28.
3) Johnston, A., 1826. A letter to the Secretary relating to the preceding inscription. Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1(2), pp.537-548.
4) Kalus, L. and Guillot, C., 2006. Réinterprétation des plus anciennes stèles funéraires islamiques nousantariennes: III. Sri Lanka (In French). Archipel, 72(1), pp.29-40.
5) Lee, S., 1827. A Cufic Inscription found in Ceylon, communicated by Sir A. JOHNSTON, V.P.R.A.S.; with a Translation by the Rev. SAMUEL LEE, A.M., Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge. Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1(2), pp.545-548.


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