Buddhism and Sri Lanka

According to Sri Lankan chronicles, Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka in the 3rd century B.C. by Arhant Mahinda, during the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa.

Sri Lankan Inscriptions

The earliest trace of epigraphy in South Asia is said to be found in Sri Lanka. A piece of pottery, dated to circa the 4th century B.C. has been discovered from the Anuradhapura citadel.

Architecture of Sri Lanka

The architecture of Sri lanka has a long history and shows diversed forms and styles, mainly infuenced by their religions and traditional beliefs.

Sri Lankan Antiquities

Inherited from the past, Sri Lanka has a large number of antiques with cultural and historical significance which reflects the glory of past era.

Visit Sri Lanka

Located in the northern waters of the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka is an island blessed with a large number of attractons which has made the country an ideal destination for the tourism.

Tuesday, 17 May 2022

Kilinochchi War Memorial

The Kilinochchi War Memorial has been set up in the middle of Kilinochchi town, Sri Lanka. 

The monument was erected as a war hero cenotaph to mark the capturing of Kilinochchi town on 2 January 2009 from the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a militant group designated as a terrorist organization by 32 countries. LTTE was defeated by the government forces in May 2009 ending the 26 years long Sri Lanka Civil War.

The monument is a massive concrete cuboid (30 x 20 ft.) pierced by a torpedo and crowned by a lotus blossom (Pieris, 2014).

References
1) Pieris, A., 2014. Southern invasions: post-war tourism in Sri Lanka. Postcolonial studies, 17(3), pp.266-285.

Location Map
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Monday, 16 May 2022

Elephant Pass War Memorial

Elephant Pass War Memorial
The Elephant Pass War Memorial has been set up on the wayside of the Kandy-Jaffna highway (A9), near the Elephant Pass in Kilinochchi District, Sri Lanka. It was unveiled in the presence of the then defence secretary Gotabhaya Rajapaksa in December 2010 (Hyndman & Amarasingam, 2014). 

The monument
The 42 ft. high monument, designed by the National Design Center of Sri Lanka was erected at Elephant Pass to mark the unification of the A9 highway on 9 January 2009 that was under the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) occupation since 20 April 2000 (Hyndman & Amarasingam, 2014; Pieris, 2014). LTTE was a militant group designated as a terrorist organization by 32 countries and it was defeated by the government forces in May 2009 ending the 26 years long Sri Lanka Civil War.

The monument depicts four outstretched arms of four main communities hoisting a (unified) Sri Lanka as the Sri Lanka national flag flutters high above (Hyndman & Amarasingam, 2014; Pieris, 2014). The blooming flowers symbolize the defeat of terrorism and the birth of peace (Hyndman & Amarasingam, 2014). The monument is surrounded by four lions at the cardinal points.

References
1) Hyndman, J. and Amarasingam, A., 2014. Touring “Terrorism”: Landscapes of Memory in Post‐War Sri Lanka. Geography Compass, 8(8), pp.560-575. 
2) Pieris, A., 2014. Southern invasions: post-war tourism in Sri Lanka. Postcolonial studies, 17(3), pp.266-285.

Location Map
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Sunday, 15 May 2022

Puthukkudiyiruppu Victory Monument and War Museum

Puthukkudiyiruppu Victory Monument
The Victory Monument of Puthukkudiyiruppu & War Museum (Sinhala: පුදුකුඩිඉරුප්පු ස්මාරකය සහ යුධ කෞතුකාගාරය) have been set up on the wayside of the Parantan-Mullaitivu road, near the Nanthi Kadal lagoon in Mullaitivu District, Sri Lanka. It was unveiled in the presence of the then president Mahinda Rajapaksa on 12 October 2019 (McCargo & Senaratne, 2020).

The Victory Monument
The monument which represents a soldier carrying the Sri Lankan lion flag and a weapon was erected to symbolize the success of the Wanni Humanitarian Operation, an operation carried out during the final phase of the 26 years long Sri Lanka Civil War that ended in May 2009 with the defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) rebels, a militant group designated as a terrorist organization by 32 countries. The pond around the monument symbolizes the ocean surrounding the country and the national flower lilies which bloom in it symbolize the Sri Lankan nation. The granite boulders laden at the base of the monument represent the soil and the four lions standing at the four cardinal points portray the warriors who came from all directions to protect the country by sacrificing their lives. The soldier who emerges from the ground holding a weapon symbolizes the heroic troops while the lion flag on his hand depicts the pride of the country. The pigeon taking wings symbolized the conspicuous peace to the nation.

The War Museum
The war museum is located next to the Victory Monument. It displays several weapons and assault vehicles/ships used by the LTTE rebels during the civil war (Hyndman & Amarasingam, 2014). 

References
1) Hyndman, J. and Amarasingam, A., 2014. Touring “Terrorism”: Landscapes of Memory in Post‐War Sri Lanka. Geography Compass, 8(8), pp.560-575. 
2) McCargo, D. and Senaratne, D., 2020. Victor’s memory: Sri Lanka’s post-war memoryscape in comparative perspective. Conflict, Security & Development, 20(1), pp.97-113.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 17 May 2022
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Saturday, 14 May 2022

Yapahuwa Archaeological Museum

The Archaeological Museum of Yapahuwa, Sri Lanka is one of the Regional Museums Administered by the Department of Archaeology

History
The museum was first established in the premises of Yapahuwa Raja Maha Viharaya in 1986 and later on, it was moved to the present building (Rambukwella, 2014).

Museum
The museum preserves a collection of items discovered from the Yapahuwa Ancient City as well as from the surrounding areas. Artefacts such as Buddhist monuments and inscriptions are displayed in two gallery rooms.

References
1) Rambukwella, M.W.C.N.K., 2014. Heritage representation in culturally diverse societies: a case study of the Colombo National Museum in Sri Lanka (Doctoral dissertation, School of Museum Studies). p.410.

Location Map
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Friday, 13 May 2022

Panduwasnuwara Archaeological Museum

Panduwasnuwara Archaeological Museum
The Archaeological Museum of Panduwasnuwara, Sri Lanka is one of the Regional Museums Administered by the Department of Archaeology

History
A small museum was first established in Panduwasnuwara in 1970 and it was refurbished in 1983 (Rambukwella, 2014). The present museum was opened to the public in 1993 (Rambukwella, 2014).

Museum
The museum preserves a collection of items discovered from the Panduwasnuwara Ancient City as well as from surrounding sites. Artefacts include Buddhist statues, stone, wooden and metal objects, terracotta items, coins, glass items, carvings, ornaments, writing instruments, various types of bricks and tiles and other monumental remains (Rambukwella, 2014). Objects are displayed in five gallery rooms while open spaces are also used.

Attribution
1) Panduwasnuwara Museum by L Manju is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

References
1) Rambukwella, M.W.C.N.K., 2014. Heritage representation in culturally diverse societies: a case study of the Colombo National Museum in Sri Lanka (Doctoral dissertation, School of Museum Studies). pp.409-410.

Location Map
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Thursday, 12 May 2022

Wasgamuwa National Park

Wasgamuwa National Park
Wasgamuwa National Park is a national park that spans Central and North Central Provinces, Sri Lanka. It is considered an important habitat in the country for swamp elephants (Elephas maximus ceylonensis), a subspecies of Sri Lankan elephants (Elephas maximus maximus).

History
This area was originally a gaming sanctuary in about 1907 and was protected from February 1938 as a reserve (Green, 1990; Padmalal et al, 1998). It was then founded as a national park in two phases, with Lots I and II notified on 7 August 1984 and Lot III on 25 January 1980 (Green, 1990). 

Physical features
The total area of the park is 37,063 ha and it is bounded by the Mahaweli Ganga river to the east, by Amban Ganga to the west and north and by Dunuwila Oya to the south (Green, 1990). Flood Plain National Park lies immediately to the northeast downstream from Wasgamuwa. 

The climate of the park area is tropical, with a dry season extending from March to September and a rainy season from October to February (Fernando et al., 2017). The mean temperature is 32˚C and the mean annual rainfall is 2,250 mm, which occurs mostly during the northeast monsoon (Fernando et al., 2017). Vegetation is dominated by lowland dry semi-evergreen forests (Padmalal et al, 1998).

See also

Attribution

References
1) Green, M.J.B. ed., 1990. IUCN directory of South Asian protected areas. IUCN. pp.267-271.
2) Fernando, C., Corea, R., Weerasinghe, C. and Fernando, P., 2017. Puddling in elephant dung by Lepidopterans in Wasgamuwa, Sri Lanka. Gajah, pp.14-20.
3) Padmalal, U.K.G.K., Ratnayake, H.D., Weerasinghe, U.R. and Takatsuki, S., 1998. Ecological studies on mammals and birds in Sri Lanka.

Location Map
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Wednesday, 11 May 2022

Maduru Oya

Maduru Oya
Maduru Oya is a river in eastern Sri Lanka. It originates in Mahiyangana and flows through Badulla, Monaragala, Ampara, Polonnaruwa and Batticaloa districts (Kirupacaran, 2020). It is the 8th longest river in the country (Withanage et al., ?).

History
The remains of an old sluice were discovered at the site in September 1982, during the preparatory work for the construction of the Maduru Oya Dam (Gunawardana, 1987). 

River basin
Extending in an area of about 1,541 km2, the Maduru Oya river basin is located with the Mahaweli Ganga basin in the West, Gal Oya basin in the South, and Mundeni Aru and Miyangoda Ela basins in the East (Kirupacaran, 2020).

Reservoirs & anicuts in the Kirindi Oya river basin

See also

Attribution
1) 20200203 175204 lakeview by Nisakya 21 is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

References
1) Gunawardana, R.A.L., 1987. The Ancient sluice at the Maduru Oya Reservoir: Experimentation in Sri Lankan Traditions of Hydraulic Engineering. pp.1-20.
2) Kirupacaran, S., 2020. Analysis of precipitation trend and streamflow sensitivity to precipitation in Maduru oya river basin with HEC-HMS model simulations (Doctoral dissertation). p.28.
3) Withanage, N.S., Dayawansa, D.K., De Silva, R.P. and Rathnayake, C.W., ?. Assessment of morphological characteristics of Maduru Oya river basin of Sri Lanka using GIS.  

Location Map
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Tuesday, 10 May 2022

Hora (Tree)

Dipterocarpus zeylanicus
Dipterocarpus zeylanicus is an evergreen perennial plant endemic to the island of Sri Lanka. It grows as a tree of about 170 ft. high and produces timber that can be used for bent works, plywood, boats, planks, casks and piles (Worthington, 1959). The bark is pale-grey in colour with swirl marks (Worthington, 1959). The fruit is purple in colour when young. Trees are majorly found in the southwestern wet zone of the country, below 3,000 ft. (Worthington, 1959). 

Vernacular names
Sinhala: හොර (Hora)                                            Tamil: ?

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales
Family: Dipterocarpaceae
Genus: Dipterocarpus
Species: Dipterocarpus zeylanicus

References
1) Worthington, T.B., 1959. Ceylon trees. Ceylon trees. p.49.

This page was last updated on 10 May 2022
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Monday, 9 May 2022

Bu Hora (Tree)

Dipterocarpus hispidus
Dipterocarpus hispidus is an evergreen perennial plant endemic to the island of Sri Lanka. It grows as a tree of about 170 ft. high and produces timber that can be used for casks, boats, and floors (Worthington, 1959). The bark is muddy-grey in colour with thin vertical raised wrinkles (Worthington, 1959). Trees are majorly found in rainforests and in the wettest districts in the southwestern part of the country, below 1,500 ft. (Worthington, 1959). 

Vernacular names
Sinhala: බූ හොර (Bu-hora)                                            Tamil: ?

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales
Family: Dipterocarpaceae
Genus: Dipterocarpus
Species: Dipterocarpus hispidus

Attribution
1) Dipterocarpus hispidus by AntanO is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

References
1) Worthington, T.B., 1959. Ceylon trees. Ceylon trees. p.48.

This page was last updated on 9 May 2022
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Sunday, 8 May 2022

Godapara

Dillenia retusa is an evergreen perennial plant endemic to the island of Sri Lanka. It grows as a tree of about 30 ft. high and produces timber that can be used in light constructions such as rafters, and posts (Worthington, 1959). The bark is grey-brown in colour and has vertical, wavy and convex patterns (Worthington, 1959). The flowers are white while the fruit is orange-red in colour. Trees are majorly found in the moist, western areas, below 1,500 ft. (Worthington, 1959). 

Vernacular names
Sinhala: ගොඩපර (Godapara)                                            Tamil: ?

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Dilleniales
Family: Dilleniaceae
Genus: Dillenia
Species: Dillenia retusa

References
1) Worthington, T.B., 1959. Ceylon trees. Ceylon trees. p.3.

This page was last updated on 8 May 2022
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Saturday, 7 May 2022

Polwatta Ganga

Polwatta Ganga is a river in southern Sri Lanka. It originates in the hills above Nakiyadeniya where it is known as Udugan Oya (Amarathunga et al., 2013; Arumugam, 1969). It flows a length of nearly 32.19 km before entering the Indian Ocean at Weligama Bay at a point called Polwatumodera (Amarathunga et al., 2013). 

The Polwatta river has a catchment area of about 235.7 km2 (Amarathunga et al., 2013). During the dry season, the River is subjected to saline water intrusion at least 8 km upstream (Amarathunga et al., 2013). An important development work of the Polwatta Ganga is its inundation regulator which was constructed in 1954 (Arumugam, 1969).


References
1) Amarathunga, A., Jinadasa, S. and Azmy, S., 2013. Sedimentary characteristics and status of water quality in Polwatta river and Weligama bay in Sri Lanka. Journal of Environmental Professionals Sri Lanka, 2(1). pp.38-51.
2) Arumugam, S., 1969. Water resources of Ceylon: its utilisation and development. Water Resources Board. p.78.

Location Map
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Friday, 6 May 2022

Somawathiya National Park

Somawathiya National Park
Somawathiya National Park (Sinhala: සෝමාවතිය ජාතික වනෝද්‍යානය) is a national park that lies between Eastern Province and North Central Province in the deltaic plain of Mahaweli Ganga river, Sri Lanka.

History
The park was originally established as a sanctuary on 9 August 1966 and was designated as a national park on 2 September 1986 (Green, 1990). It was extended through the addition of Block II on 12 May 1987 (Green, 1990). It is presently incorporated with Mahaweli Environment Project.

Physical features & climate
The total area of the park is 37,762 ha [(Block I: 21,056.8 ha, Block II: 16,705.6 ha) Green, 1990]. It is contiguous with Flood Plains National Park to the south and to Tirikonamadu Nature Reserve to the east (Green, 1990). The western part of the national park (Block II) provides a link with Hurulu Forest Reserve (Green, 1990).

The park lies in the deltaic flood plains of the Mahaweli Ganga river and surrounds the junction where it is forked into two branches: the Mahaweli Ganga river, which flows north into Koddiyar Bay and the lesser Verugal Oya which flows north-east into the sea (Green, 1990).

The national park’s vegetation is classified into Sri Lanka monsoon forests (Ahamed, 2015).

References
1) Green, M.J.B. ed., 1990. IUCN directory of South Asian protected areas. IUCN. pp.256-259.

Location Map
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Thursday, 5 May 2022

Allai Copper Plate Grant

Neelapola Vihara Copper Plate Grant (also known as Allai Copper Plate Grant) is a copper-plate charter discovered at Neelapola Raja Maha Viharaya near Allai in Trincomalee District, Sri Lanka. This artefact is considered the second oldest copper-plate charter so far discovered in the country (Fernando, 1978).

Discovery
The plates were discovered in or about 1963 by a resident in the village of Allai near Seruwila while digging the earth near the remains of some ancient buildings (Fernando, 1978). They were brought to the notice of P.E.E. Fernando in July 1968 by a Buddhist monk named Matale Sumana Thera of Neelapola Raja Maha Viharaya (Fernando, 1978).

The copper plates
The charter is inscribed on five copper plates measuring 8.5 inches in length and 3 inches in width (Ranawella, 2007). The obverse of the first plate is inscribed with the figures of the moon (on the left side) and the sun (on the right side) and its inner side is left blank (Fernando, 1978; Ranawella, 2007). The rest of the plates have writing on both sides while the figures of a man, a dog, and a crow are found inscribed on the reverse side of the last plate (Fernando, 1978; Ranawella, 2007). In the center of the left-hand margin of each plate is a hole used to bind the plates together using a wire.

There are 7 lines of writing on the first written plate while 6 lines on the last one (Ranawella, 2007). All other plates contain 8 lines of writing (Ranawella, 2007). The preamble of this inscription is similar to that of the Pateyala slab inscription of Nissankamalla (1187-1196 A.D.) and the Devanagala Rock Inscription of Parakramabahu I [(1153-1186 A.D.) Ranawella, 2007].

Content
The inscription records a grant of one Yala of land by King Nissankamalla (1086-1197 A.D.) pronounced in the Council of Ministers (Fernando, 1978; Ranawella, 2007). The grant had been made to a chieftain named Nisyamkha Lamkesvara Rak of Helavana who had successfully completed a diplomatic mission to the Kalinga country and another country named Panduruva [(probably Pandya country, India) Fernando, 1978; Ranawella, 2007]. This information is not found in local chronicles and therefore it is considered as an important fact for digging out the history of the Polonnaruwa Period (Ranawella, 2007).

Period: 12th century A.D.        Reign: King Nissankamalla        Language & Script: Medieval Sinhala
Number of plates: 5 copper plates        Length & width: 8.5 X 3 inches       Weight: 5.512 lbs
Discovered: in or about 1963, from the village of Allai near Seruwila

See also

References
1) Fernando, P.E.E., 1978. Allai Copper Plate Charter of King Nissankamalla. pp.73-91.
2) Ranawella, S., 2007. Inscription of Ceylon. Volume VI. Department of Archaeology. ISBN: 978-955-91-59-61-2. pp.149-154.



This page was last updated on 5 May 2022
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Wednesday, 4 May 2022

Seruvila Allai Sanctuary

Seruvila Allai Sanctuary is one of the Sanctuaries in Sri Lanka. It lies near Toppur, 25 km southeast of Trincomalee.

History
The area was declared a sanctuary on 9 October 1970 (Green, 1990).

Physical features & climate
The total area of the sanctuary is 15,540 ha (Green, 1990). It contains a large, shallow, brackish coastal lagoon named Ullackalie (Green, 1990). It is 2 m deep and fed by several small streams and is seasonally tidal (Green, 1990). During the rainy season, the lagoon is connected to Verugal river to the south (Green, 1990).

The sanctuary’s vegetation is classified into Sri Lanka dry-zone evergreen forests.

References
1) Green, M.J.B. ed., 1990. IUCN directory of South Asian protected areas. IUCN. pp.247-248.

Location Map
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Tuesday, 3 May 2022

Sigiriya Sanctuary

Sigiriya Sanctuary
Sigiriya Sanctuary is one of the Sanctuaries in Sri Lanka. It lies in the Matale District associated with the environment of the Sigiriya World Heritage Site.

History
The area was declared a sanctuary on 26 January 1990 (Green, 1990).

Physical features & climate
The total area of the sanctuary is 5,099 ha (Green, 1990). It surrounds the ancient Sigiriya rock fortress and many other ruined sites (Green, 1990). The topography is flat except for the massive rock outcrop of Sigiriya.

The sanctuary’s vegetation is classified into Sri Lanka monsoon forests. Thunderstorms occur during the northeast monsoon between October/November and the end of December (Green, 1990).

See also

Attribution

References
1) Green, M.J.B. ed., 1990. IUCN directory of South Asian protected areas. IUCN. pp.249-245.

Location Map
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Monday, 2 May 2022

Lahugala Kitulana National Park

Lahugala Kitulana National Park
Lahugala Kitulana National Park is a national park situated in the basin of the Heda Oya in Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. It is considered one of the smallest national parks in the country (Green, 1990).

History
The park was originally established as a sanctuary on 1 July 1966 and was designated as a national park on 31 October 1980 (Green, 1990).

Physical features & climate
The total area of the park is 1,554 ha (Ahamed, 2015; Green, 1990; Santiapillai, 1997). It contains the reservoirs of Lahugala, Kitulana and Sengamuwa and they are ultimately emptied into the Heda Oya river (Ahamed, 2015; Green, 1990). The mean annual rainfall of the area is about 1,650 mm and the Northeast monsoon persists from the months of November to December (Ahamed, 2015; Green, 1990). Two dry periods last from May to October and January to March (Ahamed, 2015; Green, 1990).

The national park’s vegetation is classified into Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests (Ahamed, 2015).

References
1) Ahamed, A.R., 2015. Activity time budget of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in the wild. Trends in Biosciences, 8(12), pp.3024-3028.
2) Green, M.J.B. ed., 1990. IUCN directory of South Asian protected areas. IUCN. pp.226-228.
3) Santiapillai, C., 1997. The Asian elephant conservation: A global strategy. Gajah, 18, pp.21-39.

Location Map
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Sunday, 1 May 2022

Minneriya National Park

Minneriya National Park
Minneriya National Park is a national park situated in Polonnaruwa District, Sri Lanka. 

The park is considered prime habitat for elephants due to the large number of Asian elephants that are attracted to the grass fields on the edge of the Minneriya Reservoir during the dry season. It is the only park in the country where a large clan of elephants can be found in one place and this is recognized as the largest Asian elephant gathering in the world (Pastorini et al., 2020; Pathirana et al., 2021; Rathnayake, 2016).

Minneriya is part of a large protected area system that allows free movement of elephants and includes the Kaudulla and Angamedilla National Parks, Giritale Sanctuary, Hurulu Eco-Park and Forest Reserve and Gal Oya Forest Reserve (Pastorini et al., 2020).

History
Minneriya was declared as a national park on 12 August 1997 and opened for visitors in May 1998 (Pathirana et al., 2021; Wijerathna & Senevirathna, 2016). 

Physical features
The total area of the park is 94.11 km2 and it lies within the Minneriya- Giritale Nature Reserve (Blocks I, II, III and IV) and Sigiriya Sanctuary (Pathirana et al., 2021; Wijerathna & Senevirathna, 2016). It acts as the catchment of the three main lakes; Minneriya Reservoir and Giritale Wewa and Parakrama Samudraya (Pathirana et al., 2021). The Minneriya Reservoir is the main water source located within the park.

The park is located in the dry zone and the average rainfall is between 1500-2000 mm annually (Pathirana et al., 2021). The temperature ranges between 21°C-34°C (Pathirana et al., 2021). Main rainfall is experienced from the eastern monsoon between January to May.

Attribution
1) Słonie na SriLance4 by ZiemowitJ is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

References
1) Pastorini, J., Pilapitiya, S. and Fernando, P., 2020. Wild Asian Elephant Twins in Sri Lanka. Gajah, 52, pp.48-50.
2) Pathirana, M.T., Herath, H.M.R.P., Scott, N. and Gardiner, S., 2021. Economic sustainability in safari tourism in Southeast Asia: the case of Minneriya National Park Sri Lanka. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality & Culinary Arts, 13(3). pp.201-227.
3) Rathnayake, R.M.W., 2016. Pricing the enjoyment of ‘elephant watching at the Minneriya National Park in Sri Lanka: An analysis using CVM. Tourism Management Perspectives, 18, pp.26-33.
4) Wijerathna, K.A. and Senevirathna, E.M.T.K., 2016. Identification of The Potentiality and Socio Economic impacts of tourism in Minneriya National Park Using GIS Techniques. Wildlanka. Journal of the Department of Wildlife Conservation of Sri Lanka, 4(2). pp.48-57.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 3 May 2022
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Hiyare Reservoir Rainforest

Hiyare Reservoir Rainforest
Hiyare Reservoir Rainforest (Sinhala: හියාරේ ජලාශය සහ වැසි වනාන්තරය) which acts as the catchments of the man-made Hiyare Reservoir, is located in Galle District, Sri Lanka. The site is presently used for recreation purposes.

The rainforest spans in an area of 243 ha. and is an extension of Kottawa- Kombala Forest Reserve (Hapuarachchi & Kathriarachchi, 2012). It has been protected since 1919 because of the presence of the 22.22 ha. Hiyare reservoir (Perera et al., 2016). The reservoir is used as a source of pure drinking water for the people of Galle since 1911 (De Silva, 1996). The Mahadola, a tributary of the Gin Ganga river, rises in the western part of the catchment of the reservoir (De Silva, 1996).

Attribution
1) Hiyare forest by Raviprabhath is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

References
1) De Silva, M.P., 1996. Biodiversity in the catchment of Hiyare reservoir. In Proceedings of International Forestry and Environment Symposium. pp.237-247.
2) Hapuarachchi, G.K. and Kathriarachchi, H.S., 2012, December. Diversity of tree flora of the catchments of Hiyare reservoir. In Proceedings of International Forestry and Environment Symposium (Vol. 17). p.15.
3) Perera, P.L.M.M., Kotagama, S.W., Goodale, E. and Kathriarachchi, H., 2016. What happens when the nuclear species is absent? Observations of mixedspecies bird flocks in the Hiyare Forest Reserve, Galle, Sri Lanka. pp.96-97.

Location Map
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Saturday, 30 April 2022

Udugodagama Tempita Viharaya

Udugodagama Tempita Viharaya is a Buddhist temple situated in Malagamuwa village in Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka.

History
The Tempita Viharaya is the main attraction of this temple with archaeological value. It is said to have been built during the Kandyan Period (Mendis et al., 2019).

Tempita Viharaya
Tempita Viharas were a popular aspect of many Buddhist temples during the Kandyan period. These structures were usually built on a wooden platform resting on bare stone pillars or stumps which are about 1-4 feet tall. The roof is generally made of timber and held by wooden stumps. The walls are usually made of wattle and daub and they form the main enclosed shrine room containing the Buddhist sculptures and murals belonging to the Kandyan style. Some Tempita Viharas have narrow verandas and ambulatories circulating the main enclosed space. The construction of these buildings was started in the 17th century and lasted until the end of the 19th century (Wijayawardhana, 2010).

Udugodagama Tempita Viharaya
The Tempita Viharaya of this temple can be identified as an ancient monument with archaeological value. It is a small building balanced on 9 stone stumps of about 0.7 m tall (Mendis et al., 2019). The building is 3.7 m in length and 5.31 m in width (Mendis et al., 2019). The floor of it is laid with planks and the interior walls have been decorated with paintings depicting Buddhist themes. The surface of the outer walls have been covered with a clay layer in 2014 (Mendis et al., 2019).

A protected site
The Tempita Viharaya belonging to the Udugodagama Vihara premises situated in the No. 464, Malagamuwa Grama Niladhari Division in the Kurunegala Divisional Secretary’s Division is an archaeological protected monument, declared by a government gazette notification published on 21 October 2010.

References
1) Mendis, D.T.; Wijepala, W.M.T.B.; Harshajith, D.M.N., 2019. දැදුරු ඔය සහ මී ඔය අතර කලාපයේ පුරාවිද්‍යාත්මක ස්ථාන පිළිබඳ මූලික විමර්ශනයක්. මධ්‍ය දැදුරු ඔය හා මී ඔය නිම්නයේ ජනාවාස පුරාවිද්‍යාව. Research and Publication Fund, Rajarata University Of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 978-955-0189-14-1.pp.33-103.
2) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1677. 21 October 2010. p.1749.
3) Wijayawardhana, K., 2010. Sri Lankawe Tampita Vihara (In Sinhala). Dayawansa Jayakody & Company. Colombo. ISBN: 978-955-551-752-2. p.12.
 
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Friday, 29 April 2022

Modara Maha Kali Amman Temple

Maha Kali Amman Temple is a Hindu Kovil situated in Modara (Mutwal) in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. It is dedicated to Goddess Kali, one of the deities of the Hindu pantheon. The temple, according to local belief, has a history linked to the Dutch colonial period (1640-1796 A.D.). Presently, this site is popular among both Hindu and Buddhist populations in the area for religious rituals related to making vows and cursing punishments.

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Niyadawane Viharaya

Niyadawane Raja Maha Viharaya (Sinhala: නියදවනේ රජමහා විහාරය) is a Buddhist temple situated in Niyadawane village in Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka.

History
It can be identified that this temple had been developed from the Anuradhapura Period to the Kandyan Period (Mendis et al., 2019). There are two Len Viharas (cave temples) in the temple premises and they preserve a valuable collection of paintings and sculptures of the Kandyan art tradition (Mendis et al., 2019). As mentioned on one of the walls in the first cave, the paintings in that cave have been done in 2449 B.E. [(1905 A.D.) Mendis et al., 2019].
Text: ශ්‍රී බුද්ධ වර්ෂයෙන් දෙදාසැ හරසිය හතලිස් නවයේදී ය. ගල්කන්දේගොම විසී ජයසිංහ පටබැන්දා විසින් නිම කලායග
Translation: It is in 2449 Buddhist year. Completed by Galkandegoma Visi Jayasinha Patabenda.
Also, as revealed by a note in the second cave, the three sculptures in that cave have been done in 2464 B.E. (1920 A.D.) by a Buddhist monk named Saranankara with getting the help of villagers and two named persons (Mendis et al., 2019).
Text: ශ්‍රී බුද්ධ වර්ෂ 2464 ක් වූ වෙශක් මස පුර තෙලෙස්වක නම්ලත් ගුරු දිනමෙම පිළිම තුංනම අසල් ගම්වැසි දායක පිරිසගේ උදව් ඇතිව කම්බුවන මෙම විහාරවාසී සරනංකර යතින්ද්‍රයන් වන මම විසින් හාරිස්පත්තුවේ අලගොඩ වලව්වේ ශ්‍රී වික්කම රාජසිංහ බණ්ඩාරනායක සී.බී. බන්ඩාරේ ලවා එම අයගේත් උදව් ඇතුව නිම කලා. සාදු. සාදු. සාදු.
The dilapidated mound of an ancient Stupa has been identified on the top of the temple rock (Mendis et al., 2019).

A protected site
The three drip-ledged rock cave Viharas and the ancient Chaitya belonging to the Niyadawane Raja Maha Vihara situated in the Grama Niladhari Division No. 358 - Niyadawane in the Divisional Secretary’s Division of Polpitigama are archaeological protected monuments, declared by two government Gazette notifications published on 23 January 2009 and 24 July 2009.

References
1) Mendis, D.T.; Wijepala, W.M.T.B.; Harshajith, D.M.N., 2019. දැදුරු ඔය සහ මී ඔය අතර කලාපයේ පුරාවිද්‍යාත්මක ස්ථාන පිළිබඳ මූලික විමර්ශනයක්. මධ්‍ය දැදුරු ඔය හා මී ඔය නිම්නයේ ජනාවාස පුරාවිද්‍යාව. Research and Publication Fund, Rajarata University Of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 978-955-0189-14-1.pp.33-103.
2) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1586. 23 January 2009. p.106.
3) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1612. 24 July 2009. p.1024.
 
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Thursday, 28 April 2022

Kurulu Kele Bird Sanctuary

Kurulu Kele Bird Sanctuary (Sinhala: කුරුලු කැලේ අභයභූමිය) is a lowland wetzone forest situated in Kegalle District, Sri Lanka. Presently, it is administered by the Forest Department of Sri Lanka (Pemarathne et al., 2014).

The forest area was declared a sanctuary on 14 March 1941 due to its high bird and plant diversity (Pemarathne & Gunaratne, 2013). At the time, the forest had an extent of 109 ha., but due to various human impacts, it is now left with only 11.32 ha. [(10.4%) Pemarathne & Gunaratne, 2013; Pemarathne et al., 2014].

References
1) Pemarathne, S.K.S. and Gunaratne, A.M.T.A., 2013. Conservation Importance of Flora in the Kurulu Kele Sanctuary, Sri Lanka. In Proceedings of International Forestry and Environment Symposium (Vol. 18).
2) Pemarathne, S.K.S., Jayasuriya, K.M.G.G. and Gunaratne, A.M.T.A., 2014. Potential of Developing Ecotourism in Kurulu Kele Sanctuary, Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the Peradeniya Univ. International Research Sessions, Sri Lanka, Vol. 18. p.595.

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Kadamba Veheragala Viharaya

Kadamba Veheragala Sri Purvarama Raja Maha Viharaya (Sinhala: කඩම්බා වෙහෙරගල ශ්‍රී පූර්වාරාම රජමහා විහාරය) is a Buddhist temple situated near Karambe village in Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka.

History
Archaeological evidence of an ancient Stupa such as the remnants of a Yupa (2.66 m) and Chatra stones have been unearthed from this site (Mendis et al., 2019). However, the site where this Stupa was located has not been identified yet (Mendis et al., 2019). An Asana (2.8 x 1.3 m) and a Siri Pathul Gala have also been discovered from the temple premises (Mendis et al., 2019).

References
1) Mendis, D.T.; Wijepala, W.M.T.B.; Harshajith, D.M.N., 2019. දැදුරු ඔය සහ මී ඔය අතර කලාපයේ පුරාවිද්‍යාත්මක ස්ථාන පිළිබඳ මූලික විමර්ශනයක්. මධ්‍ය දැදුරු ඔය හා මී ඔය නිම්නයේ ජනාවාස පුරාවිද්‍යාව. Research and Publication Fund, Rajarata University Of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 978-955-0189-14-1.pp.33-103.
 
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Wednesday, 27 April 2022

Kukulugala Forest

Kukulugala Forest (Sinhala: කුකුළුගල වනාන්තරය) is a lowland evergreen rainforest situated within the western boundary of Ratnapura District, Sri Lanka. It covers an area of more than 600 acres within the Ayagama Secretariat Division (Karunarathna & Amarasinghe, 2011).

The Kukulugala Mountain (also known as Horanae Kanda) is situated within the forest reserve at an elevation of 705 m a.s.l. (Karunarathna & Amarasinghe, 2011). Also, two waterfalls named Ritigas Ella and Miyunu Ella are found in the entourage of the reserve. The average annual rainfall of the forest is around 3,849 mm, with most rainfall occurring from December to May (Karunarathna & Amarasinghe, 2011). The mean annual temperature is 28.7 °C with a maximum of 32 °C and a minimum of 24.3 °C (Karunarathna & Amarasinghe, 2011). 

The forest consists of dominant tree species such as Dipterocarpus sp., Mesua sp., Doona sp.,  Schumacheria castaneifolia, Artocarpus nobilis, Calophyllum inophyllum, Mangifera zeylanica,  Humboldtia laurifolia, Oncosperma fasciculatum,  Canarium zeylanicum and Shorea sp. (Karunarathna & Amarasinghe, 2011).

References
1) Karunarathna, D.M.S. and Amarasinghe, A.A., 2011. Reptile diversity of a fragmented lowland rain forest patch in Kukulugala, Ratnapura district, Sri Lanka. TAPROBANICA: The Journal of Asian Biodiversity, 2(2). pp.

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Korossa Viharaya

Korossa Raja Maha Viharaya is a Buddhist temple situated in Korossa village in Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka.

History
The history of this temple goes back to the Anuradhapura Period as evidenced by the inscriptions and artefacts such as the Siri Pathul Gala (Mendis et al., 2019). A number of inscriptions of the Vaharala type have been discovered from the site (Mendis et al., 2019). Of them, one is considered special as there is a figure of a dog inscribed beside the inscription (Mendis et al., 2019). 

The cave temple of Korossa Viharaya shows architectural features of the Kandyan Period (Mendis et al., 2019). It is said to have been constructed in 2306 B.E. (1762 A.D.) by King Kirti Sri Rajasinha (1747-1782 A.D.) as a tribute to Biso Bandara Swamin.

References
1) Mendis, D.T.; Wijepala, W.M.T.B.; Harshajith, D.M.N., 2019. දැදුරු ඔය සහ මී ඔය අතර කලාපයේ පුරාවිද්‍යාත්මක ස්ථාන පිළිබඳ මූලික විමර්ශනයක්. මධ්‍ය දැදුරු ඔය හා මී ඔය නිම්නයේ ජනාවාස පුරාවිද්‍යාව. Research and Publication Fund, Rajarata University Of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 978-955-0189-14-1.pp.33-103.
 
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Tuesday, 26 April 2022

Horagolla National Park

Horagolla National Park (Sinhala: හොරගොල්ල ජාතික උද්‍යානය) is a low country evergreen forest in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka. Extending in an area of 13 ha., it is considered the smallest national park in the country.

The park was originally designated as a wildlife sanctuary on 5 September 1973 but considering its high biodiversity it was upgraded to the state of a national park on 24 June 2004 (Pethiyagoda & Mahaulpatha, 2016).

The forest receives rainfall from NorthEast monsoons during the months of December to January and SouthWest monsoons from May to September (Pethiyagoda & Mahaulpatha, 2016). The mean annual temperature lies between 27.0 °C to 28.5 °C (Pethiyagoda & Mahaulpatha, 2016).

References
1) Pethiyagoda, P.D.R.S. and Mahaulpatha, W.A.D., 2016. Avian Fauna Abundance and Diversity in Horagolla National Park of Sri Lanka. WildLanka Vol.4, No.3. pp. 141-147.

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Badulla St. Mark's Church

Badulla St. Mark's Church
St. Mark's Church (Sinhala: බදුල්ල ශාන්ත මාර්ක් දේවස්ථානය) is an Anglican church situated in Badulla town, Sri Lanka. It was erected by locals in 1857 in the memory of the colonial British officer Major Thomas William Rogers [(1804–1845) Lewis, 1913].

History
Before 1857
There was not a church building in Badulla before 1857 and the church services were conducted in the local courthouse by the priests who came from Nuwara Eliya. In 1846, a Bishop named James Chapman visited Badulla while on a tour in Nuwara Eliya. He conducted a service in the Badulla courthouse on 24 February, attended by district officials and coffee planters. On the next day, he organized a public meeting for the locals from the neighbourhood and Europeans living in Uva and made preliminary arrangements to build a new church in Badulla.

The church was finally erected at the present site in memory of Thomas William Rogers by 1857 with the contribution of the people of all religions and races in Badulla. It was consecrated on 25 April 1857 (St. Mark's day) by Bishop James Chapman.
 
Thomas William Rogers
Major Thomas William Rogers was a British colonial administrator, soldier and sportsman. He joined the Ceylon Rifle Regiment on 7 January 1824 as a 2nd Lieutenant and was appointed as the Assistant Government Agent at Badulla in 1834 (Lewis, 1913). He, during his tenure of office as Assistant Government Agent, had rendered yeoman service for the development of the area (Abeyawardana, 2004). As found in records, he had killed as many as 1,500 wild elephants and that made him unpopular among people although he had earned a reputation for his services (Abeyawardana, 2004; Lewis, 1913). He died on 7 June 1845, struck by lightning at the Haputale Pass bungalow (Lewis, 1913). His body was buried at the Cemetery at Nuwara Eliya.

In the church, there is a tablet with two inscriptions in English and in Sinhala (Lewis, 1913). Of them, the English inscription can be read as follows;
A.D. 1845. This Church was erected to the honour of God in memory of Thomas William Rogers, Major, Ceylon Rifle Regiment, Assistant Government Agent and District Judge of Badulla, by all classes of his people, friends, and admirers. He was killed by Lightning at Haputale June 7th, 1845, aged 41.
The first vicar at the church was Rev. E. Mooyart. Rev. William J. P. Waltham, the vicar, from 1900 to 1925 established a missionary school at Medagama which later became Uva College. In 1921 he built the bell tower of the church with the money donated by W.E.T. Sharpe, the churchwarden.

A protected site
The Church of St. Mark and the bell tower situated in the Grama Niladhari Division No. 78-D-Badulla Centre, in Badulla Divisional Secretary’s Division are archaeological protected monuments, declared by a government Gazette notification published on 6 June 2008.

 
References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2004. Heritage of Kandurata: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Colombo: The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. p.211.
2) Lewis, J. P., 1913. List of inscriptions on tombstones and monuments in Ceylon, of historical or local interest with an obituary of persons uncommemorated: Colombo. pp.291,323,357-359.
3) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1553. 6 June 2008. p.530.

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