Thursday, January 28, 2021

Jetavanarama Monastery, Anuradhapura

Jetavanarama Stupa
Jethavanaramaya [(also known as Denanaka or Dena Vihara) Nicholas, 1963] is an ancient Buddhist monastery situated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.

History
The temple founded by Mahasena
The Jetavana monastery is a creation of King Mahasena (276-303 A.D.), the first Sinhala king who embraced Mahayana Buddhism (Jayasuriya, 2016; Nicholas, 1963; Wikramagamage, 2004). According to chronicles, Mahasena who was against to Maha Vihara fraternity destroyed its some of the building and used the materials to build new structures at Abhayagiri Viharaya (Jayasuriya, 201). Ignoring the protests of Maha Vihara monks, the king established the Jetavanaramaya within the precincts of the Maha Vihara and offered it to Tissa Thera of Dakkhina Vihara, a monk who had won the admiration of the king (Nicholas, 1963; Wikramagamage, 2004). Thereafter, the Jetavanarama served as the headquarters of the Sagaliya sect until the 12th century (Wikramagamage, 2004).

Nandana Pleasure Grove
Jetavanaramaya is said to have been established within the park named Nandana (Jayasuriya, 2016; Wikramagamage, 2004). Arahant Mahinda (3rd century B.C.), the messenger of Buddhism to Sri Lanka had stayed for seven days at this site to preach the Dharma of the Buddha (Jayasuriya, 2016; Wikramagamage, 2004). In recognition of this event, the park was renamed Jotivana which means 'the place where the holy one had made the true doctrine shine forth' (Jayasuriya, 2016; Wikramagamage, 2004). It is said that this land was started to know an Isibhumangana (courtyard of the sage) because of Arahant Mahinda and his associate monks were cremated at this site after their deaths (Jayasuriya, 2016; Wikramagamage, 2004). Archaeological evidence that supports this belief has been found from the site (Jayasuriya, 2016; Wikramagamage, 2004).

Jetavana entourage
Jetavana Monastery
Jetavana entourage is extending in about 80 hectares (Jayasuriya, 2016). All essential features of a Buddhist monastic institution such as the Stupa, Bodhi-tree shrine, Pilimage (image house), Uposathagara (chapter house), Sannipatasala (assembly hall), living quarters, refectories, ponds, etc. are found here. Kings such as Mittasena (428 A.D.), Dhatusena (455-473 A.D.), Mahanaga (569-571 A.D.), Aggabodhi I (571-604 A.D.), Aggabodhi II (604-614 A.D.), Moggallana III (614-619 A.D.), Aggabodhi IV (667-683 A.D.), Aggabodhi VI (733-772 A.D.), Dappula II (815-831 A.D.), Sena I (833-853 A.D.), Sena II (853-887 A.D.), Udaya IV (946-954 A.D.), Mahinda IV (956-972 A.D.), Parakramabahu I (1153-1186 A.D.) made repairs and additions to the development of the temple (Nicholas, 196).
 
Jetavana Stupa
The Stupa is the main and most impressive feature of the whole monastery complex. It is the largest and tallest brick monument in the world (Jayasuriya, 2016; Ranaweera, 2004). Its original height was a little over 120 m and in the 4th century A.D., it was the third tallest monument in the world after two pyramids at Gizeh in Egypt (Jayasuriya, 2016; Ranaweera, 2004). The Stupa including the sand-strewn terrace covers an area of about 3 hectares (Jayasuriya, 2016). Presently, it rises up to a height of 73 m (up to the broken spire). 
 
After constructed by King Mahasena (276-303 A.D.), the Stupa was renovated and repaired by several kings during various time periods. King Mittasena (428 A.D.) made a gateway to the Stupa and King Dhatusena (455-473 A.D.) restored and gilded the umbrella of it (Nicholas, 1963). King Mahanaga (569-571 A.D.), Aggabodhi I (571-604 A.D.), Moggallana III (614-619 A.D.) made further improvements to the Stupa (Nicholas, 1963). King Parakramabahu I (1153-1186 A.D.) last restored the Stupa to a height of 210 feet in the 12th century A.D. (Jayasuriya, 2016; Nicholas, 1963).

Thereafter, the Stupa didn't receive the patronage of anyone until the 19th century. During the second half of the 19th century, the British Administration of Ceylon and then the Department of Archaeology partly excavated and conserved the Stupa which had been swallowed by thick vegetation. In 1981, the Central Cultural Fund began archaeological research and conservation work at the site (Ranaweera & Abeyruwan, 2006).
 
Frontispieces (Vahalkada)
Jetavana Viharaya
Four frontispieces are there at the base of the Jetavana Stupa facing cardinal points. The steles of them have been freely decorated with floral designs and figure sculptures (Jayasuriya, 2016). Remnants of paintings still visible in some places of them (Wikramagamage, 2004). The frontispieces of Ruwanweliseya, Mirisawetiya, and Jetavana Stupas are said to be basically similar to each other (Wikramagamage, 2004).

Other monuments belong to the Jetavana Vihara complex
Other monuments within the Jetavana monastery premises include the Uposathagara (the chapter house), Danasala (the refectory), Pancavasa (monks' living units), Patimaghara (the image house), Thimbiri Pokuna, Yaturu Pokuna, and the building of Buddhist Railing.

Artifacts
A large number of artifacts were unearthed during the Jetavana Vihara Project that was carried out at the monastic site by the Cultural Triangle. Some of them are presently on the display at Jetavanarama Museum and Colombo National Museum.

Relief sculpture of Mahamaya
Jetavana Viharaya
A limestone slab depicting three women was found near the building known as Buddhist railing (Jayasuriya, 2016). It had been used to pave the floor of a building but it is not a paving stone and believed to have been brought from another site, probably from the Stupa (Jayasuriya, 2016). Scholars concluded that this sculpture belongs to the Amaravati School of Andra, India (Jayasuriya, 2016; Wikramagamage, 2004). According to the view of Wikramagamage, this may have been imported from Andra or had been done locally by artists from Andra (Wikramagamage, 2004).

The slab depicts Queen Maha Maya (the mother of the Buddha) who is being conducted to the precincts of a Sala tree for her confinement (Jayasuriya, 2016; Wikramagamage, 2004).

Jetavanarama Fragmentary Slab Inscription of King Mahasena
This inscription was discovered from the premises of the Jetavana monastery in 1893, by the then Archaeological Commissioner H. C. P. Bell (Paranavitana, 2001; Ranawella, 2005). It has been erected to regulate the monastic life of monks connected with five great residences of the Mahavihara fraternity in Anuradhapura 
These golden plates were discovered from Jetavanarama monastery during an archaeological excavation done under the UNESCO-Sri Lanka Cultural Triangle Project (Wikramagamage, 2004). The epigraph on the plates contains a portion but an exact copy of the Mahayana Buddhist text Pancavimsati-sahasrika – Prajnaparamitasutra, one of the earliest texts written in about the 2nd century A.D.

The micro gold carving
A very small gold piece containing 14 lotus flowers has been found from the Jetavana premises and presently on the display at the Jetavanarama museum (Wikramagamage, 2004). It is said that this type of micro carving has not been found in any other country in Asia (Wikramagamage, 2004).
 
Jetavanarama Museum
Jetavanarama museum was opened to the public in 1992 (Rambukwella, 2014). A large number of artifacts discovered from the Jetavanarama premises are displayed in the museum.

References
1) Jayasuriya, E., 2016. A guide to the Cultural Triangle of Sri Lanka. Central Cultural Fund. ISBN: 978-955-613-312-7. pp.36-46 
2) Nicholas, C. W., 1963. Historical topography of ancient and medieval Ceylon. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series (Vol VI). Special Number: Colombo. Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). pp.146-147. 
3) Paranavitana, S. 2001. Dias, M. (Ed). Inscription of Ceylon: Volume II. Part II. Archaeological Survey Department. pp.189-192.
4) Rambukwella, M.W.C.N.K., 2014. Heritage representation in culturally diverse societies: a case study of the Colombo National Museum in Sri Lanka (Doctoral dissertation, School of Museum Studies). p.419-420. 
5) Ranaweera, M.P., 2004. Ancient Stupas in Sri Lanka-Largest brick structures in the World. CHS Newsletter No. 70, December 2004, London, Construction History Society.
6) Ranaweera, M. and Abeyruwan, H., 2006. Materials used in the construction, conservation, and restoration of ancient stupas in Sri Lanka. In Proceedings of the second International Congress on Construction History. pp.2573-2586.
7) Ranawella, S. (Ed.), 2005. Sinhala inscriptions in the Colombo National Museum: Spolia Zeylanica. Vol 42. (2005). Department of National Museums, Sri Lanka. pp.3-5
8) Wikramagamage, C., 2004. Heritage of Rajarata: Major Natural, Cultural and Historic sites: Colombo. Central Bank of Sri Lanka. pp.126-139.

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This page was last updated on 24 May 2021
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