Buddhism and Sri Lanka

According to Sri Lankan chronicles, Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka in the 3rd century B.C. by Arhant Mahinda, during the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa.

Sri Lankan Inscriptions

The earliest trace of epigraphy in South Asia is said to be found in Sri Lanka. A piece of pottery, dated to circa the 4th century B.C. has been discovered from the Anuradhapura citadel.

Architecture of Sri Lanka

The architecture of Sri lanka has a long history and shows diversed forms and styles, mainly infuenced by their religions and traditional beliefs.

Sri Lankan Antiquities

Inherited from the past, Sri Lanka has a large number of antiques with cultural and historical significance which reflects the glory of past era.

Visit Sri Lanka

Located in the northern waters of the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka is an island blessed with a large number of attractons which has made the country an ideal destination for the tourism.

Friday, October 15, 2021

Udamuna Purana Viharaya

Udamuna Purana Viharaya is a Buddhist temple situated in the Veraduwa area in Matara District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This temple is believed to have been constructed during the Kandyan Period and the Vihara-ge (the image house) of the temple is probably a work of the first decade of the 19th century (Abeyawardana, 2004; Wikramaratne, 2015). The date 1864 with the British crest has been found engraved over one of the doors at the residence building of the monks (Abeyawardana, 2004).

The image house
The image house consists of two sections, viz: the inner chamber and the outer part. The inner chamber preserves the oldest murals of the temple and a seated statue of the Buddha with two statues of standing Buddhas on either side are found within it (Abeyawardana, 2004). The murals in the outer part have been repainted recently.

References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2004. Heritage of Ruhuna: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Colombo: The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 955-575-073-4. pp.77-78.
2) Wikramaratne, I., 2015. Pauranika Sthana Saha Smaraka: Matara Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 955-9159-54-2. p.29.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 15 October 2021
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Agalakada Sri Dhammarakkhita Viharaya

Agalakada Sri Dhammarakkhita Viharaya (also known as Agalakada Dhammarakkhitaramaya) is a Buddhist temple situated in the Akuressa area in Matara District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This temple was constructed by a Buddhist monk named Agalakada Sri Dhammarakkhita Thera during the reign of King Kirti Sri Rajasinghe [(1747-1782 A.D.) Abeyawardana, 2004; Wikramaratne, 2015]. This monk is said to be the first one from the Southern Province to obtain the Upasampada (the Higher Ordination) from the famous scholarly monk Welivita Sri Saranankara Thera [(1698-1778 A.D.) Abeyawardana, 2004].

The temple
The Vihara-ge (image house), Stupa and Awasa-ge (monks dwelling) are identified as old monuments of this temple (Wikramaratne, 2015). The small image house preserves a collection of paintings and sculptures of the Kandyan Period (Abeyawardana, 2004; Wikramaratne, 2015). The group of short stone pillars which is found within the temple premises provides evidence of the existence of a Tempita Viharaya (temple on pillars) in ancient times (Abeyawardana, 2004; Wikramaratne, 2015).

References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2004. Heritage of Ruhuna: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Colombo: The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 955-575-073-4. p.84.
2) Wikramaratne, I., 2015. Pauranika Sthana Saha Smaraka: Matara Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 955-9159-54-2. pp.35-36.

Location Map
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Thursday, October 14, 2021

Kadawedduwa Thunbodhi Viharaya

Kadawedduwa Thunbodhi Viharaya is a Buddhist temple situated in Kadawedduwa in Matara District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This temple is said to have been constructed in 1754 (Wikramaratne, 2015). The paintings in the Vihara-ge (image house) as well as in the Dhamma-sala (preaching hall) show the features of the art tradition of the Kandyan Period (Wikramaratne, 2015). The year 1819 is mentioned in one of the paintings in the preaching hall (Wikramaratne, 2015).

A fragment of an inscription is found within the Stupa terrace (Wikramaratne, 2015).

References
1) Wikramaratne, I., 2015. Pauranika Sthana Saha Smaraka: Matara Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 955-9159-54-2. p.35.

Location Map
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Weragampita Raja Maha Vihara

Weragampita Raja Maha Viharaya (also known as Weheragampita Viharaya) is a Buddhist temple situated in Weragampita village in Matara District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This temple is believed to have been constructed during the Kandyan Period in the late 18th century (Abeyawardana, 2004). King Kirti Sri Rajasinghe (1747-1782 A.D.) is said to have contributed to the construction works of the temple (Wikramaratne, 2015).

This temple was the abode of the famous scholarly Buddhist monk Karatota Dhammarama Thera [(1735-1827) Abeyawardana, 2004]. He was one time the incumbent of Sri Pada Mountain (Abeyawardana, 2004). The tomb of this Thera has been presently designated as a protected monument by the Department of Archaeology.

A protected site
The grave monument of Karatota Thera and ancient shrine in the premises of Weragampita Rajamaha Vihara situated in the Grama Niladhari Division No. 417, Uyanwaththa North in the Divisional Secretary’s Division Matara are archaeological protected monuments, declared by a government Gazette notification published on 7 July 2016.
 
References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2004. Heritage of Ruhuna: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Colombo: The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 955-575-073-4. pp.74-75.
2) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka; Extraordinary. No: 1974/16. 7 July 2016. p.2A
3) Wikramaratne, I., 2015. Pauranika Sthana Saha Smaraka: Matara Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 955-9159-54-2. p.22.

Location Map
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Wednesday, October 13, 2021

Himidurawa Wewa

Himidurawa Wewa is a reservoir situated in Himidurawa village in Ampara District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This tank was constructed during the 1951-1952 period by the Gal Oya Development Board (Arumugam, 1969).

The reservoir
The bund of the reservoir is about 5,000 ft. long and the water is extending in an area of about 275 acres at its full supply level (Arumugam, 1969). It has one spill and two sluices (Arumugam, 1969). It feeds the nearby Konduwaruwana Tank (Arumugam, 1969). 

References
1) Arumugam, S., 1969. Water resources of Ceylon: its utilisation and development. Water Resources Board. p.167.

Location Map
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Maha Mantindaramaya

Maha Mantindaramaya (also known as Maha Mantinda Pirivena) is a Buddhist temple situated in Bamunugama village in Matara District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This temple was established in 1893 as an education centre for Buddhist monks as well as laymen (Abeyawardana, 2004). Bedigama Siri Ratanapala Thera was the first incumbent of the temple (Abeyawardana, 2004).

References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2004. Heritage of Ruhuna: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Colombo: The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 955-575-073-4. p.71.

Location Map
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Tuesday, October 12, 2021

Sri Meenachi Sundareshwarar Temple, Kaluwella

Sri Meenachi Sundareshwarar Temple is a Hindu temple situated in Kaluwella in Galle District, Sri Lanka. It is popular among devotees for the annual festival held in April.

History
This temple is believed to have been established in 1877 (Abeyawardana, 2004).

References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2004. Heritage of Ruhuna: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Colombo: The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 955-575-073-4. p.29.

Location Map
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Deepaduttaramaya, Kotahena

Deepaduttaramaya (also known as Dipaduttarama Purana Thai Raja Maha Viharaya) is a Buddhist temple situated in Kotahena in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. It is considered the oldest Buddhist place of worship in the Colombo city area (Bajpai, 2019; Rajapakshe et al., 2018).

History
Establishment of the temple
This temple was established in 1745, in a part of an aristocratic residence called Kulatunga Wijayasiriwardana Walawwa and therefore known as the "Walawwe Pansala" which means the "Temple of the Mansion" (Manathunga, 2016; Rajapakshe et al., 2018). In the beginning, the doors of this temple were only opened for elites as it was on a private property (Manathunga, 2016; Rajapakshe et al., 2018). Although it was bestowed to Buddhist monks in 1784, only the aristocratic people had permission to enter the temple (Manathunga, 2016). However, due to the effort of Seenigama Dhammakkhandha Thera, it became a Buddhist place of worship for the public in 1806 (Manathunga, 2016; Rajapakshe et al., 2018).
 
Period of Migettuwatte Gunananda Thera
The temple later became the home of Migettuwatte Gunananda Thera (1823-1890) who is well-known for the debates held between Buddhists and Christians (Bajpai, 2019; De Silva, 2009; Manathunga, 2016; Rajapakshe et al., 2018). Of the debates headed by him, the Panadura-vadaya (1873) debate made a phenomenal impact on the revival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and it also attracted some influential western personalities to the country such as Henry Steel Olcott (1832-1907) and Madam Helena Blavatsky (1831-1891) the co-founders of the Theosophical Society (De Silva, 2009; Rajapakshe et al., 2018).

1883 Kotahena riot
Sri Lanka was under the British regime from 1815 to 1948. During this period Christianity received more support from the British Government than Buddhism. At the time Kotahena was regarded as a Roman Catholic stronghold and Deepaduttaramaya was the only Buddhist place of worship there (De Silva, 2009; Rajapakshe et al., 2018). After Migettuwatte Gunananda Thera took over the charge of Deepaduttaramaya, the Buddhist activities in the area continued in an atmosphere of overt and covert opposition from missionary organizations and government officials (De Silva, 2009). During the Easter Week of 1883, Catholics in Kotahena attacked a precession of Buddhists headed by Migettuwatte Gunananda Thera and as a result of this, one Catholic and one Buddhist were killed leaving hundreds injured (Bartholomeusz, 1995).

A number of Roman Catholics were arrested over these riots but the government dropped charges against most of them (De Silva, 2009). A report by a commission appointed by Governor James Robert Longden (1877-1883) held the view that the Catholics who had been provoked by Migettuwatte Gunananda Thera's fiery speeches had indeed attacked the Buddhists (De Silva, 2009). However, by disappointing the Buddhist party, the government placed restrictions on all religious processions (De Silva, 2009).

Olcott and Blavatsky who were absent from Sri Lanka during the riot period returned in January 1884 and established a Buddhist Defence Committee to present this case of the Buddhists to the colonial government (Bartholomeusz, 1995; De Silva, 2009). However, it didn't succeed in influencing the government position towards the Buddhists but succeeded in honouring the identity of the Buddhist community (Bartholomeusz, 1995).

Hoisting the Buddhist flag
As a universal symbol of Buddhism, the present Buddhist flag was designed in 1885 by the Colombo Committee, Sri Lanka with the participation of scholarly monks such as Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Thera (1827-1911) and also Migettuwatte Gunananda Thera. It was first publicly hoisted on Vesak day, 28 May 1885 at the Deepaduttaramaya, by Migettuwatte Gunananda Thera (Bajpai, 2019). It was the first Vesak public holiday in Sri Lanka under British rule (Bajpai, 2019).

The temple
Deepaduttaramaya was established during the Dutch colonial period in Sri Lanka [(1640–1796) Bajpai, 2019]. Therefore, traces of Dutch architecture is still visible along with British architecture on several monuments of the temple. As it received the patronage of the royal family of Thailand, some buildings of this temple have been built according to Thai architecture. Of the buildings, the image house, monks' dwellings, and Stupa are considered special (Rajapakshe et al., 2018).

Image house
Originally built by Wijayasiriwardana, the image house displays the Dutch and British touches of architecture (Bajpai, 2019; Manathunga, 2016; Rajapakshe et al., 2018). A facade was added to it in 1785 and in 1873 and the British Royal emblem is found on the upper part of it (Bajpai, 2019; Manathunga, 2016; Rajapakshe et al., 2018). Inside the image house are the statues of the Buddha with murals depicting some of his life events. The Antaralaya section is filled with sculptures of gods, Bodhisattvas and paintings of Jataka stories (Rajapakshe et al., 2018).
 
Monks dwelling
The building with five Victorian arches is said to be the dwelling of Migettuwatte Gunananda Thera (Manathunga, 2016). It was preserved by the Department of Archaeology during the 2016-2017 period (Rajapakshe et al., 2018). Besides this dwelling, another building has been built for monks.

Stupa
The Stupa was built during the 1904-1911 period by the royal family of Thailand (Rajapakshe et al., 2018). The architecture of this monument is similar to that of the Mulagandha Kuti Vihara in India (Manathunga, 2016; Rajapakshe et al., 2018).

A protected site
The old Vihara-geya (the image house) and the Avasage (the monks' dwelling) situated in the premises of Deepaduththarama Vihara in Kotahena Grama Niladhari Division in Colombo Divisional Secretariat Division are archaeological protected monuments, declared by a government Gazette notification published on 18 June 1999.
 
References
1) Bajpai, L.M., 2019. Stories of the Colonial Architecture: Kolkata-Colombo (Vol. 1). Doshor Publication. pp.140-141.
2) Bartholomeusz, T., 1995. Catholics, Buddhists, and the Church of England: The 1883 Sri Lankan Riots. Buddhist-Christian Studies, 15, pp.89-103.
3) De Silva, K.M (Editor in chief), 2009. History of Ceylon: Vol. III. Ministry of Higher Education. pp.199-202.
4) Manathunga, S. B., 2016. Pauranika Sthana Saha Smaraka: Kolamba Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 955-9159-39-9. pp.77-78. 
5) Rajapakshe, S.; Bandara, T. M. C.; Vanninayake, R. M. B. T. A. B. (Editors), 2018. Puravidya Sthana Namavaliya: Kolamba Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Vol. I. Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 978-955-7457-19-2. pp.40-41. 
6) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1085. 18 June 1999.

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Monday, October 11, 2021

Parama Dhamma Nivesa Pirivena

Not to be confused with Parama Dhamma Chethiya Pirivena

Parama Dhamma Nivesa Pirivena is a Buddhist temple situated in Boralesgamuwa in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This temple was built at the same time as the Parama Dhamma Chethiya Pirivena in Ratmalana (Rajapakshe et al., 2018). With the addition of new buildings and other facilities, it gradually became a prominent Pirivena (a centre of learning) for Buddhist monks in the country. 
 
As mentioned in the Vihara documents, the Awasa-ge (monks' dwelling) and the Vihara-ge (image house) were added to the temple around 1880, during the time of Godigamuwe Saranatissa Thera (Rajapakshe et al., 2018). The completed Vihara-ge is said to have been declared open by the scholarly Buddhist monk Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Thera (1827-1911) in 1898 (Rajapakshe et al., 2018). The construction works of the Bodhi tree shrine, Stupa, belfry, and the Bana Maduwa (Dhamma preaching hall) were finished around 1928, during the time of Lenadora Dhammarakkhita Thera (Rajapakshe et al., 2018).

A protected site
The image house and ancient Avasage in the Paramadamma Niwasa Piriwena in Boralasgamuwa Grama Niladhari Division bearing No. 533 B in Kesbewa Divisional Secretariat Division are archaeological protected monuments, declared by a government Gazette notification published on 23 February 2007.
 
References
1) Rajapakshe, S.; Bandara, T. M. C.; Vanninayake, R. M. B. T. A. B. (Editors), 2018. Puravidya Sthana Namavaliya: Kolamba Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Vol. I. Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 978-955-7457-19-2. pp.50-51.
2) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1486. 23 February 2007. p.524.

Location Map
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Galkanda Viharaya, Horampella

Galkanda Purana Viharaya (also known as Galkanda Siriniketha Piriven Mula Maha Viharaya) is a Buddhist temple situated in Horampella area in Minuwangoda in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka. 

History
As per the belief of locals, the history of this site is linked with King Valagamba (103,89-77 B.C.). There is a small drip-ledged cave known as "Len Viharaya" and inside it is a small Stupa which is considered to be the oldest monument of this temple. The Bodhi tree of the temple, according to folklore, is a sapling of Sri Maha Bodhiya at Anuradhapura. In 1909, a Bodhighara (a Bodhi-tree shrine) was constructed around this tree by a devotee named E.P. Samara Upasaka.

The Pattini Devalaya shrine of this temple is popular among devotees as it is believed to have been established during the reign of King Gajabahu I (113-135 A.D.).
 
The temple
The temple mainly consists of a Stupa, Bodhi tree, image house, preaching hall, library and monks' dwellings. The preaching hall of the temple was constructed by E.P. Samara Upasaka and his son E.P. Odiris Mudalali caused to build the library and Seema Malakaya buildings.

The facade of the image house of this temple is considered special as it has an architecture similar to a church. The three entrances of this facade have been decorated with a Makara Thorana (dragon arch) accompanied by the figures of guards. An artist from Beruwala named S. Silva is said to have designed the paintings of the image house. As it was constructed during the British colonial period, a number of British elements are found along with traditional Buddhist murals and sculptures. The Netra Mangalya of the Buddha images is said to have been done in 1911.

Diwela Sri Silavimala Thera was the head priest of this temple from 1896 to 1911. In 1913, a Pirivena for the education of Buddhist monks was established at this temple by the then incumbent Diwela Sumanasiri Thera.

Location Map
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Sunday, October 10, 2021

King Udaya II of Anuradhapura

Udaya II was the King of Anuradhapura Kingdom, Sri Lanka from 887 A.D. to 898 A.D. (Ray, 1959) Belonging to the Dynasty of Manawamma, he ruled the country from his capital at Anuradhapura until he was succeeded by Kassapa IV (Ray, 1959).

Reign
The king of Anuradhapura
Udaya II became the ruler of the country after the death of his elder brother King Sena II in 887 A.D. (Ray, 1959). He conferred the Uparaja (or Mahadipada) title to his youngest brother named Kassapa (Kassapa IV) while keeping the Kassapa (Kassapa V), the son of Sena II as Yuvaraja (Ray, 1959). Udaya II married Tissa, a daughter of Uparaja Kassapa and had Sena, another daughter of Uparaja Kassapa, given in marriage to the Yuvaraja Kassapa (Ray, 1959).

Rebellion of Kittaggabodhi
Due to an unknown reason which is not mentioned in chronicles, Kittaggabodhi, the son of Adipada Mahinda (the elder brother of Udaya II. He died in 885 A.D. and therefore couldn't succeed to the throne) rebelled against Udaya II (Ray, 1959). Kittaggabodhi's mother was Kitti, the sister of Kassapa, Sena and Udaya, the three princes of Rohana (Ray, 1959). As Kittaggabodhi understood he couldn't do anything in Anuradhapura, he escaped to Ruhuna when Udaya II trying to capture him (Ray, 1959). Kittaggabodhi killed his maternal uncle (one of the three brothers of Kitti) who was ruling Rohana at the time (Ray, 1959). It is believed that the other two brothers were also murdered by Kittaggabodhi (Ray, 1959).
 
By hearing these developments in Rohana, Udaya II summoned Yuvaraja Kassapa and put it to him that the person who will fit to be as the next ruler in Rohana was his own son, the young Prince Mahinda because of his grandmothers were daughters of the former ruler of Rohana, Kittaggabodhi (Ray, 1959). Yuvaraja Kassapa agreed with that and Udaya II sent young Mahinda under the care of Senapathi Vajiragga with a large army to Rohana to claim the throne (Ray, 1959). Kittaggabodhi who saw the situation is getting worse fled to Malaya but he was captured and taken before Mahinda at his headquarters in Guttasala [(present Buttala) Ray, 1959]. He was finally taken to Anuradhapura where he was imprisoned by Udaya II (Ray, 1959).
 
Death
Udaya II died in 898 A.D. and the Uparaja Kassapa became the king of the country as Kassapa IV (Ray, 1959).

Services & monuments
Religious
As mentioned in chronicles such as Culavamsa, King Udaya II has contributed to the development of Buddhist monasteries in the country as follows (Davis, 2013; Nicholas, 1963); 
 
1) Thuparamaya: The Stupa was covered in gold plates, built a Pasada.
2) Mahapali Alms Hall: Enlarged the hall.
 

Inscriptions
Eighteen inscriptions dated in the reign of King Udaya II have been found from the country (Ranawella, 2001). 
 
1) Anuradhapura-Malvatu Oya pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This has been dated in the 1st regnal year of King Udaya II (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this inscription is to register an immunity granted in respect of a village named Kelegama attached to a hospital situated near Anuradhapura (Ranawella, 2001).
 
2) Ambagahawewa pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 1st regnal year of Udaya II, the purpose of setting up of this record was to register the grant of certain immunities made in respect of a village named Lahasugama owned by a hospital (Ranawella, 2001).
 
3) Anuradhapura Eastern Gate pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This inscription is dated in the 1st regnal year of Udaya II (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this record was to register a land grant made by the king to a hospital situated in Mandiligiri (Ranawella, 2001).
 
4) Mihintale fragmentary pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
As the introductory part of this record is missing, the date of it is unclear (Ranawella, 2001). The object of setting up of this record was to register certain immunities granted by the king in respect of the land where the Mihintale Hospital was located (Ranawella, 2001). 
 
5) Rambeva pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 1st regnal year of Udaya II, the object of this record was to register certain immunities granted by the king in respect of an estate dedicated to a monastery named Sen Senevirad Pirivena built within the Maha Viharaya premises in Anuradhapura by the Commander-in-Chief Kuttha (Ranawella, 2001).
 
6) Iripinniyava pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This inscription is dated in the 1st regnal year of Udaya II and its content is similar to that in the Rambeva pillar inscription (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this record was to register certain immunities granted by the king in respect of a village named Posonavulla in Sulinnarugama dedicated to a monastery named Sen Senevirad Pirivena built by the Commander-in-Chief Kuttha (Ranawella, 2001).
 
7) Kirigalleva pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This has been dated in the 2nd regnal year of Udaya II and it contains a decree issued by the king granting certain immunities in respect of a village named Itnarugama in Agam-kuliya District  (Ranawella, 2001).
 
8) Nidanegama inscription (from Polonnaruwa District)
Dated in the 3rd regnal year of Udaya II, the purpose of this record was to register an immunity granted in respect of a village named Dilimutugama owned by a person named Vaduragbona (Ranawella, 2001). 
 
9) Polonnaruwa-Topawewa pillar inscription (from Polonnaruwa District)
Dated in the 3rd regnal year of Udaya II, this inscription has been set up to register an immunity granted in respect of a village named Girinabima owned by a person named Vaduragbona (Ranawella, 2001).
 
10) Anuradhapura fragmentary pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This inscription is dated in the 3rd regnal year of Udaya II (Ranawella, 2001). It has been set up to register an immunity granted in respect of a village named Kihirimiva-gama owned by a person named Vaduragbona (Ranawella, 2001). The name Vaduragbona is also mentioned in Nidanegama and Polonnaruwa-Topawewa inscriptions.
 
11) Anuradhapura-Halpanu Ela pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 3rd regnal year of Udaya II, the purpose of this record was to register some immunities in respect of an estate or land named Setakora (Ranawella, 2001). 

12) Kadiramulla pillar inscription (from Kurunegala District)
Dated in the 3rd regnal year of Udaya II, it contains a decree issued by the Mahapa of the king in respect of a village named Ritigal (Ranawella, 2001).
 
13) Atdatkadavala pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 3rd regnal year of Udaya II, the purpose of setting up this record is not clear due to the weathering of the pillar (Ranawella, 2001).
 
14) Andiyagala pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
As the relevant part of this record is not preserved, the engraving date of it is unclear (Ranawella, 2001). The object of the inscription was to register the grant of certain immunities to three villages belonging to a monastery named Mahadangiri-vehera (Ranawella, 2001).
 
15) Nissankamalla Council Chamber pillar inscription (from Polonnaruwa District)
Dated in the 4h regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of this record was to register certain immunities granted in respect of some land as a free-hold by a person (the name is not preserved), on condition that he would supply annually one Pela of dried ginger to a hospital founded by a person named Doti Pilakna (Ranawella, 2001).
 
16) Panduwasnuwara pillar inscription no.1 (from Kurunegala District)
This inscription is dated in the 5th regnal year of Udaya II (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this record was to register certain immunities granted in respect of a village named Tera-atula belonging to a monastery named Galgam-pirivena and in respect of ten villages attached to a monastery named Tera-atula-vehera (Ranawella, 2001).
 
17) Panduwasnuwara pillar inscription no.2 (from Kurunegala District)
Dated in the 5th regnal year of Udaya  II, this inscription was discovered near the Panduwasnuwara Palace premises (Ranawella, 2001). The content of this inscription is similar to the Panduwasnuwara pillar inscription no. 1 (Ranawella, 2001).
 
18) Kinihirikanda pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 6th regnal year of Udaya II, the purpose of this record was to register certain immunities granted in respect of a village named Ud-tambagamuwa (Ranawella, 2001).

References
1) Davis, C.E., 2013. Early Buddhist Monasteries in Sri Lanka: A Landscape Approach (Doctoral dissertation, Durham University). p.544.
2) Nicholas, C. W., 1963. Historical topography of ancient and medieval Ceylon. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series (Vol VI). Special Number: Colombo. Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). pp.131-133,139-140.
3) Ranawella, S., 2001. Inscription of Ceylon. Volume V, Part I. Department of Archaeology. ISBN: 955-9159-21-6. pp.93-146.
4) Ray, H.C. (Editor in chief), 1959. History of Ceylon: Vol. I: Part I. Ceylon University Press. Colombo. pp.330-331.

This page was last updated on 10 October 2021
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King Sena II of Anuradhapura

Sena II was the King of Anuradhapura Kingdom, Sri Lanka from 853 A.D. to 887 A.D. (Ray, 1959) Belonging to the Dynasty of Manawamma, he ruled the country from his capital at Anuradhapura until he was succeeded by Udaya II (Ray, 1959).

Reign
The king of Anuradhapura
Sena II became the ruler of the country after the death of his uncle King Sena I in 853 A.D. (Ray, 1959). He married Samgha, the eldest daughter of late Kittaggabodhi, the ruler of Rohana (Ray, 1959). He consecrated Samgha as Mahesi and conferred Yuvaraja (the second king) title to his brother Mahinda and gave him the Dhakkhinadesa as his perquisite (Ray, 1959). Later he gave the title Yuvaraja to his newborn son Kassapa and granted him certain revenues of the kingdom (Ray, 1959). At the suitable age, Kassapa married Samgha, the daughter of Mahinda, the other Yuvaraja (Ray, 1959). Mahinda couldn't succeed to the throne as he died in 885 A.D. (Ray, 1959). After his death, the next brother of Sena II, Udaya became the Uparaja (Ray, 1959).

Invasion of Pandya Kingdom
During the early part of the Sena I's reign (833-853 A.D.), South Indian Pandya King Srimara Srivallbha (835-862 A.D.) invaded the Anuradhapura Kingdom (Ray, 1959). Although Sena I managed to save his life, his second brother Adipada Kassapa, the father of Sena II was slain by Srimara (Ray, 1959). Therefore, Sena II, after gaining the throne, was on the lookout for an opportunity to avenge the death of his father.
 
Meanwhile, a son of Srimara who had rebelled his father came to Sri Lanka probably in search of background support (Ray, 1959). Sena II decided to support him to gain the throne of Pandya Kingdom by expelling his father, Srimara. He and Nrupatunga I (c.814-878 A.D.), the Pallava King who probably had an alliance with the Sri Lankan King, attacked the Pandya Kingdom simultaneously from the south and the north (Ray, 1959). Srimara's army was attacked at the north (the battle of Arisil) by Nrupatunga meanwhile Sena sent a large Sinhalese army under the Senapathi (Commander-in-Chief) Kutthaka from the port at Mahatittha (Ray, 1959). After a short siege, the Sinhalese army captured Madhura, the Pandya capital and Srimara lost his life in the battle for the city (Ray, 1959).
 
After getting control of the Pandya Kingdom, Kutthaka placed Srimara's son Varagunavarman II (862-879 A.D.) on the Pandya throne in 862 A.D. as the nominee of Sena II (Ray, 1959). Kutthaka returned with treasures that had been removed from Sri Lanka by Srimara during the reign of Sena I (Ray, 1959). He and his troops were honoured at Anuradhapura by Sena II. A few inscriptions (such as Iripinniyava, Tamarawewa and Rambewa) in Sri Lanka mention the name of the Commander-in-Chief Kutthaka (Ranawella, 2001; Ray, 1959; Wickremasinghe, 1912).
 
Death
Sena II died in 887 A.D. and  the Uparaja Udaya became the king of the country as Udaya II (Ray, 1959).

Services & monuments
Religious
As mentioned in chronicles such as Culavamsa, King Sena II has contributed to the development of Buddhist monasteries throughout the country as follows (Davis, 2013; Nicholas, 1963); 
 
1) Lovamahapaya: Restored Lohapasada and granted it a golden image and villages.
2) Thuparamaya: Developed the Stupa.
3) Jetavanarama: Added a Bodhisattva image to Manimevula Pasada. 
4) Mihintale: Established a hospital. 
5) Uttara Mula: Added a Pasada. 
6) Ratnaprasada: Restored the building ransacked by the Pandyans. 
7) Medirigiriya: Granted villages to the Viharaya.  
8) Mahiyanganaya: Donated a maintenance village to the Viharaya. 
9) Sri Maha Bodhi: Sena II restored the trench and Yuvaraja Mahinda, the brother of Sena II built a Bodhi house.
10) Abhayagiriya: Sena II restored the image house and Mahesi Samgha, the consort of Sena II placed a dark-blue diadem on the image.
 
Besides the above-mentioned places, Sena II has developed a number of religious establishments which are not identified today (Davis, 2013).
 
Social
Some of the social works carried out by King Sena II are given below (Arumugam, 1969; Nicholas, 1963); 
 
1) Minneriya Reservoir: Added a sluice.
2) Mahakanadarawa Wewa: A feeder channel was built. 
 

Inscriptions
Twenty-eight inscriptions dated in the reign of King Sena II have been found from the country (Ranawella, 2001). 
 
1) Viya-Ulpata pillar inscription (from Matale District)
This has been dated in the 1st regnal year of King Sena II (Ranawella, 2001). The name of Mahinda, the younger brother of Sena II is mentioned in this inscription as "Mihindal Mahapa" (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this inscription is to register certain immunities granted jointly by Sena II and Mahinda in respect of some lands belonging to a monastery named Saguna-pansala (Ranawella, 2001).
 
2) Gerandigala rock inscription (from Matale District)
Dated in the 3rd regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of setting up of this record was to register the assignment of some land to a cave (to the monk who inhabited it) by Mahinda, the younger brother of Sena II (Ranawella, 2001).
 
3) Virandagoda pillar inscription (from Puttalam District)
This inscription is dated in the 3rd regnal year of Sena II (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this record was to register certain immunities granted by order of Mahinda in respect of a village and other land attached to a monastery named Salvana-vehera (Ranawella, 2001).
 
4) Panduwasnuwara pillar inscription (from Kurunegala District)
Dated in the 6th regnal year of Sena II, the object of setting up this record was to register certain immunities granted in favour of a monastery named Budatpavu-vehera (Ranawella, 2001). 
 
5) Mihintale pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 9th regnal year of Sena II, the object of this record was to register certain immunities granted by the king in respect of lands belonging to the Mihintale Monastery (Ranawella, 2001).
 
6) Mullegala pillar-slab inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This inscription is dated in the 9th regnal year of Sena II (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this record to prohibit illegal activities around a pond (Ranawella, 2001).
 
7) Appuwewa pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This has been dated in the 12th regnal year of Sena II and the purpose of setting up of this record was to register some immunity granted in respect of some lands in a District named Tirukkola (Ranawella, 2001).
 
8) Mihintale plinth course inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 12th regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of this record was to register some regulations concerning the collection of certain dues in gold from merchants who were in residence in four Districts (Ranawella, 2001). 
 
9) Mamaduwa Wewa slab inscription (from Vavunia District)
Dated in the 13th regnal year of Sena II, this inscription has been set up to prohibit fishing (poaching or stealing) in Mamaduwa Wewa (Ranawella, 2001).
 
10) Tantirimale pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This inscription is dated in the 13th regnal year of Sena II (Ranawella, 2001). It contains a decree with an order to supply a certain quantity of fish caught in a tank named Ud-Beliwewa annually to an institution of which name is not preserved (Ranawella, 2001).
 
11) Kehelpota pillar-slab inscription (from Badulla District)
Dated in the 17th regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of this record was to register some immunities in accordance with an order issued by the Supreme Council in respect of a village named Palpusuhi-gama in Arala (Ranawella, 2001). 

12) Puggulagama pillar-slab inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 18th regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of setting up this record was to register a certain land grant made in favour of a person (Ranawella, 2001).
 
13) Vehera-inna pillar inscription (from Matale District)
Dated in the 18th regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of setting up this record is not clear (Ranawella, 2001).
 
14) Abhaya Wewa pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
The inscription is dated in the 19th regnal year of Sena II (Ranawella, 2001). It records a decree that prohibiting illegal fishing in the Abhaya Wewa and the mayor of the city (city of Anuradhapura) was held responsible for it (Ranawella, 2005).
 
15) Kongolleva pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 17th regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of this record was to register certain immunities given by the king in respect of a village named Varavaturoda-gama in Uturala and some other lands in a District called Mirisbima, which had been assigned to a monastic school named Bamanagiriya Pirivena in the Kikilgiri Group of the Abhayagiriya Monastery for the well being of its resident monks (Ranawella, 2005).
 
16) Iluppakaniya pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
As stated in the inscription, it has been set up during the reign (20th regnal year) of His Majesty Sirisambo (Sena II), the Conqueror (of the city) of Madhura (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this record was to register certain immunities granted in respect of some villages owned by a monastic establishment named Bavariya-pirivena situated in the Kukulgiri Group of the Abhayagiri Viharaya (Ranawella, 2001).
 
17) Nayindanava pillar inscription (from Kurunegala District)
Dated in the 22nd regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of setting up this record was to register certain immunities granted by the king in respect of some estates attached to a monastery named Ma-eli-arama (Ranawella, 2001).
 
18) Moragahawela pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 22nd regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of this record was to register certain immunities granted by the king in respect of a village named Hangulagama in Valpita attached to a monastery named Pubbarama (Ranawella, 2001).
 
19) Selawa-Lenagama rock inscription (from Kegalle District)
Located in a paddy field called Sila-kumbura near Selawa Raja Maha Viharaya, the inscription is dated in the 23rd regnal year of Sena II (Hettiarachchi, 1991; Ranawella, 2001). The content of it refers to the provision of two Amunas of areca nut annually to a monastery named Maliva-arama from a village named Selhogama (Ranawella, 2001).
 
20) Kidagalegama pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 24th regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of setting up this record was to register certain immunities granted in respect of some land (Ranawella, 2001).
 
21) Mankadavala pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This has been dated in the 25th regnal year of King Sena II (Ranawella, 2001). The object of this record to register certain donations made in respect of Mihintale Monastery (Ranawella, 2001).
 
22) Anuradhapura pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This has been dated in the 26th regnal year of Sena II and the purpose of setting up of this record was to register some immunities granted in respect of an estate named Tambalapet Hivatta which had been granted as a descendible property to a royal lady named Kitamba, the queen of Yuvaraja Mahinda and the mother of King Udaya III [(935-938) Ranawella, 2001].
 
23) Kannimaduwa pillar inscription (from Vavunia District)
Dated in the 26th regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of setting up this record was to register certain immunities granted by the king in respect of a village named Hurbunugama in Nandgama (Ranawella, 2001).
 
24) Anuradhapura-Pankuliya pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
This has been dated in the 30th regnal year of Sena II and the purpose of setting up this record was to register some commands of the king concerning the administration of the city of Anuradhapura (Ranawella, 2001).
 
25) Tamarawewa pillar inscription (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 31st regnal year of Sena II, this inscription has been set up to register some immunities granted in respect of a village named Sulinnarugama attached to a monastery named Sen Senevirad Pirivena built by Senevirad Kuttha, the Commander-in-Chief who captured the capital of Pandya Kingdom Madhura under King Sena II (Ranawella, 2001).
 
26) Kibissa fragmentary pillar inscription (from Matale District)
Dated in the 32nd regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of setting up this record was to register certain immunities (Ranawella, 2001).
 
27) Nachchaduwa pillar inscription no.1 (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 32nd regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of setting up this record was to register certain immunities granted by the king in respect of some land belonging to a monastery (Ranawella, 2001).
 
28) Nachchaduwa pillar inscription no.2 (from Anuradhapura District)
Dated in the 32nd regnal year of Sena II, the purpose of setting up this record was to register certain immunities granted by the king in respect of four villages named Salgama, Tambu-subadi, Melendura, and Korana (Ranawella, 2001).
 
References
1) Arumugam, S., 1969. Water resources of Ceylon: its utilisation and development. Water Resources Board. p.322.
2) Davis, C.E., 2013. Early Buddhist Monasteries in Sri Lanka: A Landscape Approach (Doctoral dissertation, Durham University). p.544.
3) Hettiarachchi, A.S., 1991. Rock inscription in a paddy field at Salava (In Sinhala). Epigraphia Zeylanica being lithic and other inscription of Ceylon: Vol. VI, Part 2. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon. Sri Lanka. pp.185-189.
4) Nicholas, C. W., 1963. Historical topography of ancient and medieval Ceylon. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series (Vol VI). Special Number: Colombo. Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). pp.48,131-133,143, 146-147,162-166,183.
5) Ranawella, S., 2001. Inscription of Ceylon. Volume V, Part I. Department of Archaeology. ISBN: 955-9159-21-6. pp.13-92.
6) Ranawella, S. (Ed.), 2005. Sinhala inscriptions in the Colombo National Museum: Spolia Zeylanica. Vol 42. (2005). Department of National Museums, Sri Lanka. pp.xi,10-14,15-19.
7) Ray, H.C. (Editor in chief), 1959. History of Ceylon: Vol. I: Part I. Ceylon University Press. Colombo. pp.328-330.
8) Wickremasinghe, D.M.D.Z., 1912. Epigraphia Zeylanica: Being lithic and other inscription of Ceylon (Vol. I). London. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon. pp.163-171.

This page was last updated on 10 October 2021
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Saturday, October 9, 2021

Puvarasankulama Buddha Statue

Puvarasankulama Buddha Statue is an ancient seated Buddha statue discovered from Puvarasankulam village in Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka. It is presently preserved in the Anuradhapura Archaeological Museum.

History
This statue has been dated by scholars to the period between 6-7th centuries A.D. (Chutiwongs et al., 2007).

The statue
The statue is 1.6 m tall and has been carved out from a crystalline limestone block (Chutiwongs et al., 2007). It is in the Samadhi posture (the posture of deep meditation) with hands placed on the lap. The right leg of the statue lies over the left leg depicting Virasana posture (the seat of enlightenment). The body of the Buddha is covered by a flimsy robe (wet drapery) but, it does not cover the right shoulder. The presence of the robe is suggested by the grooved lines of the hem across the chest (Chutiwongs et al., 2007).

The Usnisa (protuberance) is present over the head covered with snail-shell curls (Chutiwongs et al., 2007). To fix a Siraspata (the flame of knowledge) there was a hole (now closed) over the top of the head (Chutiwongs et al., 2007). The features of this statue come closer to the famous Samadhi Buddha Statue at Anuradhapura (Chutiwongs et al., 2007).

References
1) Chutiwongs, N.; Prematilleke, L.; Silva, R., 2007. Sri Lanka Murthi: Buddha (Sri Lanka Sculpture: Buddha). Central Cultural Fund. Ministry of Cultural Affairs. pp.76-77.

Location Map
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Mahailuppallama Buddha Statue

Mahailuppallama Buddha Statue is an ancient Buddha statue discovered from a paddy field in Mahailuppallama village in Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka.

History
Dated to the 2nd-3rd century A.D., this statue is supposed to be a work of Andra country, India (Chutiwongs et al., 2007; Vanarathana Thera, 1990). The robe with convex ridges and heavy swag at the bottom, the round head with Usnisa, full cheeks, the bi-lobed chin of this statue are characteristically similar to the Buddha images of the Amaravati tradition of India (Chutiwongs et al., 2007). 

Mahailuppallama Buddha image is thought to be a mother statue for the other standing Buddha images sculptured during the first millennium of the Anuradhapura Period (Chutiwongs et al., 2007). Fragments of the type of this Buddha image have been found from Jaffna and the premises of Girihandu Viharaya in Ambalantota (Vanarathana Thera, 1990).

The statue
The statue is 7.1 m tall and has been carved out from a marble-like limestone block (Chutiwongs et al., 2007). The right hand of the statue which was probably in the pose of Abhaya-mudra is broken off but a new hand has been fixed to it now (Chutiwongs et al., 2007; Vanarathana Thera, 1990). The left hand is in the ring-hand attitude keeping the robe in position. 

References
1) Chutiwongs, N.; Prematilleke, L.; Silva, R., 2007. Sri Lanka Murthi: Buddha (Sri Lanka Sculpture: Buddha). Central Cultural Fund. Ministry of Cultural Affairs. pp.42-43.
2) Vanarathana Thera, K., 1990. [Wijesekara, N. (Editor in chief)] Section I: 248 BC - 500 A.D. Archaeological Department Centenary (1890-1990): Commemorative Series: Vol. IV: Sculpture. p.26.

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Friday, October 8, 2021

Bamunugama Viharaya

Bamunugama Raja Maha Viharaya is a Buddhist temple situated in Bamunugama village in Matara District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This temple is believed to have been built during or before the reign of King Detuthis VI [(328-337 A.D.) Abeyawardana, 2004]. Caves with drip-ledges and traces of paintings are found in the temple  (Abeyawardana, 2004).

References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2004. Heritage of Ruhuna: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Colombo: The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 955-575-073-4. p.82.

Location Map
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Kananke Raja Maha Viharaya

Kananke Raja Maha Viharaya (also known as Kananke Ganegoda Viharaya) is a Buddhist temple situated in Kananke village in Matara District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This temple is believed to have been built during or before the reign of King Parakramabahu VI [(1412-1467 A.D.) Abeyawardana, 2004]. Some documents that are in the possession of the temple reveal its history during the Kandyan Period  (Abeyawardana, 2004).

The image house of the temple has been constructed in the 19th century (Abeyawardana, 2004).

References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2004. Heritage of Ruhuna: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Colombo: The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 955-575-073-4. p.58.

Location Map
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Thursday, October 7, 2021

Inamaluwa Wewa

Inamaluwa Wewa is a reservoir situated in Inamaluwa village in Matale District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This has been identified as the ancient Enderagalu tank built by King Aggabodhi II  [(604-614 A.D.) Nicholas, 1963]. It is also the Erandegala tank which was renovated by King Vijayabahu I  [(1055-1100 A.D.) Nicholas, 1963]. Polonnaruwa Kalinga Park Gal Asana Inscription of King Nissankamalla (1187-1196 A.D.) mentions that the rock on which the inscription was engraved was brought from a locality named Enderagalla which is believed to be the rocky hill of that name located near this tank (Nicholas, 1963; Wikramasinghe, 1928).

References
1) Nicholas, C. W., 1963. Historical topography of ancient and medieval Ceylon. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series (Vol VI). Special Number: Colombo. Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). pp.109-110.
2) Wikramasinghe, D. M. D. Z., 1928. Epigraphia Zeylanica: Being lithic and other inscriptions of Ceylon Vol II: London. Published for the government of Ceylon by Humphrey Milford, pp. 130-134.

Location Map
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Maeliya Wewa

Maeliya Wewa is a reservoir situated in Maeliya village in Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This has been identified as the ancient Mahaeli tank built by King Dhatusena I [(455-473 A.D.) Nicholas, 1963]. It is also the Mahaheli tank which was renovated by King Vijayabahu I  [(1055-1100 A.D.) Nicholas, 1963].

References
1) Nicholas, C. W., 1963. Historical topography of ancient and medieval Ceylon. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series (Vol VI). Special Number: Colombo. Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). p.100.

Location Map
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Wednesday, October 6, 2021

Galgamuwa Wewa

Galgamuwa Wewa is a reservoir situated in Galgamuwa village in Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This tank has been identified as the ancient Girisigamukavapi restored by King Parakramabahu I [(1153-1186 A.D.) Nicholas, 1963]. The present tank was completed in 1877 (Arumugam, 1969).

The reservoir
The bund of the reservoir is about 1,200 ft. long and the water is extending in an area of about 640 acres at its full supply level (Arumugam, 1969). It has one spill and one sluice (Arumugam, 1969). 

References
1) Arumugam, S., 1969. Water resources of Ceylon: its utilisation and development. Water Resources Board. p.356.
2) Nicholas, C. W., 1963. Historical topography of ancient and medieval Ceylon. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series (Vol VI). Special Number: Colombo. Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). p.94.

Location Map
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Panankamam Tank

Panankamam Tank (Sinhala: Panankamam Wewa; Tamil: Panankamam Kulam) is a reservoir situated in Panankamam village (ancient Pahangama) in Mullaitivu District, Sri Lanka. 

History
This tank has been identified as the ancient Panagamu or Pasanagama tank built by King Dhatusena (455-473 A.D.) and restored by King Parakramabahu I [(1153-1186 A.D.) Nicholas, 1963]. An inscription of Mahinda IV (956-972 A.D.) in Vessagiriya Monastery mentions grants of fields at Pahangama (modern Panankamam) to Issarasamana Viharaya in Anuradhapura (Nicholas, 1963; Wickremasinghe, 1912).

The reservoir
The bund of the reservoir is about 4,900 ft. long and the water is extending in an area of about 150 acres at its full supply level (Arumugam, 1969). It has one spill and two sluices (Arumugam, 1969). It is fed by Paranki Aru stream. 

References
1) Arumugam, S., 1969. Water resources of Ceylon: its utilisation and development. Water Resources Board. p.308.
2) Nicholas, C. W., 1963. Historical topography of ancient and medieval Ceylon. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series (Vol VI). Special Number: Colombo. Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). p.81.
3) Wickremasinghe, D.M.D.Z., 1912. Epigraphia Zeylanica: Being lithic and other inscription of Ceylon (Vol. I). London. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon. p.39.

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Tuesday, October 5, 2021

Kali Devale, Polonnaruwa

Kali Devale is a ruined Hindu temple situated in the Ancient City of Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. It forms a trio with the Siva Devale No. 5 and Visnu Devale No. 3 to the west of the hummock near the Minneriya- Polonnaruwa road (Prematilleke, 1990). It has been dedicated to the goddess Kali (consort of Siva), one of the deities of the Hindu pantheon.

History
The construction date or the builder of this shrine is not known. However, it is believed to have been constructed during the Cola Period of Sri Lanka (1017-1070 A.D.).
 
The temple
The temple is entirely built of brick. It consisted of 3 parts; viz: the Garbha (sanctum), Antharalaya (vestibule) and Mandapa (Prematilleke, 1990). The remains of a Makara Thorana (dragon arch) flanked by ornamental pilasters are found on the wall surface on the north, south and west (Prematilleke, 1990). 

A sculpture in high relief depicting goddess Kali in her ferocious aspect of destroying Mahisasura has been unearthed from the site (Prematilleke, 1990). It is 4 ft. 6 inches high and Kali is represented with eight arms carrying traditional emblems; the sword, club, and conch (Prematilleke, 1990). 
 
See also
References
1) Prematilleke, L., 1990. The architecture of the Polonnaruwa Period 800 - 1200 A.D. [Wijesekara, N. (Editor in chief)]. Archaeological Department centenary (1890-1990): Commemorative series: Volume III: Architecture. Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). p.57.

Location Map
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