Buddhism and Sri Lanka

According to Sri Lankan chronicles, Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka in the 3rd century B.C. by Arhant Mahinda, during the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa.

Sri Lankan Inscriptions

The earliest trace of epigraphy in South Asia is said to be found in Sri Lanka. A piece of pottery, dated to circa the 4th century B.C. has been discovered from the Anuradhapura citadel.

Architecture of Sri Lanka

The architecture of Sri lanka has a long history and shows diversed forms and styles, mainly infuenced by their religions and traditional beliefs.

Sri Lankan Antiquities

Inherited from the past, Sri Lanka has a large number of antiques with cultural and historical significance which reflects the glory of past era.

Visit Sri Lanka

Located in the northern waters of the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka is an island blessed with a large number of attractons which has made the country an ideal destination for the tourism.

Sunday, 31 July 2022

Habarana Tempita Viharaya

Habarana Tempita Viharaya or Habarana Purana Tempita Raja Maha Viharaya (Sinhala: හබරණ ටැම්පිට විහාරය), is a Buddhist temple situated near Habarana Wewa tank in Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka.

History
The Tempita Viharaya at Habarana temple is said to have been constructed in the 18th century by the local community to honour a Buddhist monk who had impressed King Kirti Sri Rajasinha (1747-1781 A.D.) with his virtuous conduct (Silva & Chandrasekara, 2021).

Tempita Viharaya
Tempita Viharas were a popular aspect of many Buddhist temples during the Kandyan Period. These structures were usually built on a wooden platform resting on bare stone pillars or stumps which are about 1-4 feet tall. The roof is generally made of timber and held by wooden stumps. The walls are usually made of wattle and daub and they form the main enclosed shrine room containing the Buddhist sculptures and murals belonging to the Kandyan style. Some Tempita Viharas have narrow verandas and ambulatories circulating the main enclosed space. The construction of these buildings started in the 17th century and lasted until the end of the 19th century (Wijayawardhana, 2010).

Habarana Tempita Viharaya
The Tempita Viharaya of Habarana temple is a small rectangular building with a narrow ambulatory around it without a handrail (Silva & Chandrasekara, 2021). The Buddha images have been placed in the shrine room balanced on 11 short stone pillars (Silva & Chandrasekara, 2021). Eight masonry stumps have been added along the periphery of the ambulatory to make additional support to the floor of the shrine room.

 A seated Buddha statue in Samadi position (gesture of meditation) and two standing statues of Buddha are found in the shrine room. Two free-standing Devata (deities) figures are also found placed on either side of the main Buddha statue. The walls of this room are filled with paintings depicting Buddhist themes.

A protected site
The Tampita Viharaya at Habarana Viharaya, situated within the Palugaswewa Divisional Secretary Division is an archaeological protected monument, declared by a government Gazette notification published on 1 November 1996.

See also

References
1) Silva, K.D. and Chandrasekara, D.P., 2021. The Tämpiṭavihāras of Sri Lanka: Elevated Image-Houses in Buddhist Architecture. Anthem Press. pp.94-95.
2) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 948. 1 November 1996.
3) Wijayawardhana, K., 2010. Sri Lankawe Tampita Vihara (In Sinhala). Dayawansa Jayakody & Company. Colombo. ISBN: 978-955-551-752-2. pp.12.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 1 August 2022

Saturday, 30 July 2022

Ambareli Tempita Viharaya

Ambareli Tempita Viharaya (Sinhala: අඹරැලි ටැම්පිට විහාරය) is a Buddhist temple situated near Hinguruweawa reservoir in Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka.

History
Although the history of Ambareli temple could be traced back to the 3rd century B.C., the Tempita Viharaya is a creation of the 19th century A.D. (Silva & Chandrasekara, 2021). It was constructed in 1838 under the guidance of the Buddhist monk Handungama Indrajothi Thera (Silva & Chandrasekara, 2021).

Tempita Viharaya
Tempita Viharas were a popular aspect of many Buddhist temples during the Kandyan Period. These structures were usually built on a wooden platform resting on bare stone pillars or stumps which are about 1-4 feet tall. The roof is generally made of timber and held by wooden stumps. The walls are usually made of wattle and daub and they form the main enclosed shrine room containing the Buddhist sculptures and murals belonging to the Kandyan style. Some Tempita Viharas have narrow verandas and ambulatories circulating the main enclosed space. The construction of these buildings started in the 17th century and lasted until the end of the 19th century (Wijayawardhana, 2010).

Ambareli Tempita Viharaya
The Tempita Viharaya of Ambareli temple is a two-storied building with a narrow ambulatory on the upper level and a broad ambulatory on the ground level (Silva & Chandrasekara, 2021). The Buddha images have been placed in the Atulgeba (shrine room) balanced on eight stone pillars. A flight of steps shaded by a roof provide access to the Atulgeba

The murals inside the Tempita Viharaya are said to have been executed by the painters of the Nilagama Sittara lineage (Silva & Chandrasekara, 2021).

A protected site
The Tampita Viharaya in Ambarali Viharaya, situated within the Grama Niladhari Division No. 679-Hinguruwewa in Palagala Divisional Secretary Division is an archaeological protected monument, declared by a government Gazette notification published on 23 January 2009.

References
1) Silva, K.D. and Chandrasekara, D.P., 2021. The Tämpiṭavihāras of Sri Lanka: Elevated Image-Houses in Buddhist Architecture. Anthem Press. pp.92-93.
2) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. No: 1586. 23 January 2009. p.109.
3) Wijayawardhana, K., 2010. Sri Lankawe Tampita Vihara (In Sinhala). Dayawansa Jayakody & Company. Colombo. ISBN: 978-955-551-752-2. pp.12.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 30 July 2022

Friday, 29 July 2022

J.D.A. Perera

J.D.A. Perera
J.D.A. Perera (1897-1967) was a well-known Sri Lankan portrait painter and teacher of art (Gunawardena, 2003).

Life events
Perera was born in 1897 at Pahalagama in Gampaha. He completed his primary education at Wesley and Ananda Colleges in Colombo and later followed his chosen art at then Ceylon Technical College.

In Europe on a government scholarship in 1946-1947, Perera exhibited his works with the National Art Society of England, the Royal Society of Portrait Painters, the Scottish Academy, the Leicester Galleries and the Paris Salon (Gunawardena, 2003). In 1953, he established the Government College of Fine Arts (later renamed the "Sri Lanka National Institute of Arts") for the teaching of drawing, painting, art crafts, sculpture, music and dancing (Dharmasiri, 1990). In the beginning, the medium of instruction for all visual arts subjects was English and therefore, Perera who became its first principal commenced a Department of Sinhala to conduct art courses in Sinhala medium.

Perera passed away in 1967.

Paintings
Some of the paintings by Perera are listed below;
1) Card Players (1950) - Oli on canvas.
2) Sita de Seram - Oil on canvas
3) Chandraleka - Oil on canvas

References
1) Dharmasiri, A., 1990. Section V: Painting Modern Period (1815-1950). Archaeological Department Centenary (1890-1990): Commemorative series; Vol. V. Painting. Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). pp.125,134.
2) Gunawardena, C.A., 2003. Encyclopedia of Sri Lanka. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd. ISBN: 81-207-2536-0. p.281.

Disclaimer
By accessing this website, we hope that you are accepting the following disclaimer notice.
The information published in this biography has been extracted from reliable sources but we, Lanka Pradeepa (lankapradeepa.com) assume no responsibility or liability for any inaccurate or outdated content on this page.
This page was last updated on 5 July 2022

Thursday, 28 July 2022

Saradiel Village

Saradiel Village
Saradiel Village (Sinhala: සරදියෙල් ගම්මානය) is a rural hamlet situated in Mawanella in Kegalle District, Sri Lanka. Located at the foothills of the Uthuwankanda, it is presently promoted as a tourist village commemorating Sura Saradiel (1832-1864), a bandit who is popularly known among the local people as the Robin Hood of Sri Lanka.

Saradiel
Deekirikevage Saradiel, popularly known as Utuwankande Sura Saradiel is famous among the locals as a figure who supports the poor and the downtrodden by robbing the British administrators and their native supports (Abeyawardana, 2002). Uthuwankanda mountain was his hideout and from where he carried out numerous raids. However, Saradiel was captured by Police and taken to the gallows on 7 May 1864.

The tourist village
The Saradiel village has been built on a land of about 6 acres according to the concept of Gamage, a medical officer. The construction of the site was started in 2008 and opened to the public in 2012. Saradiel's life from his childhood to his execution is depicted in the village with life-size cement figures and structures.

Saradiel Village Saradiel Village
.
See also

References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2002. Heritage of Sabaragamuwa: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Sabaragamuwa Development Bank and The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. ISBN: 955-575-077-7.  pp.53-54.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 28 July 2022

Wednesday, 27 July 2022

Dunumadalawa Forest Reserve

Dunumadalawa Forest Reserve
Dunumadalawa Forest Reserve (Sinhala: දුනුමඩලාව රක්ෂිතය), also known as Walker Estate or Waraka Watta, is a semi-isolated, hill country wet-zone forest reserve situated in Kandy District, Sri Lanka. Extending in an area of about 480 ha., it comprises mainly of secondary growth forest (Hettiarachchi & Wijesundara, 2017). 

The forest area was an active tea, coffee and cocoa plantation until the early 1900s at which time it was protected as a watershed (Kittle et al., 2016). Some active reforestation of native tree species since 2000 has complemented natural reforestation to transform the area into a high canopy mixed forest (Kittle et al., 2016).  

The forest forms the catchment and protects the watershed of two reservoirs, Dunumadala Wewa and Rosemith Wewa which augment the water supply to the Kandy City (Hettiarachchi & Wijesundara, 2017; Yatigammana et al., 2011).  British rulers built Dunumadalawa Wewa in the 1870s by damming the Dunumadalawa stream in order to provide drinking water to residents of the city.

Dunumadalawa forest harbours 13 out of 33 endemic bird species in Sri Lanka (39.4%) and 29 endemic subspecies out of 68 [(42.7%) Hettiarachchi & Wijesundara, 2017]. The forest is also a refuge for 10 of the 23 (43.5%) restricted-range bird species (Hettiarachchi & Wijesundara, 2017). It consists of different types of habitats such as woody areas, grasslands, pine plantations, and several permanent and temporary lentic and lotic water bodies (Hettiarachchi & Wijesundara, 2017).

Attribution

References
1) Hettiarachchi, T. and Wijesundara, C.S., 2017. Conservational significance of Dunumadalawa Forest Reserve in Central Sri Lanka based on the endemism of its avifauna. Ceylon Journal of Science, 46(3), pp.21-30.
2) Kittle, A.M., Kumara, P., Pathirathna, D.G., Sanjeewani, H.K.N., Seneviratne, H.T.J. and Watson, A.C., 2016. A comparison of floral and faunal diversity between two small, disturbed forest patches in Sri Lanka's central highlands. WILDLANKA Journal of the Department of Widllife Conservation of Sri Lanka, 4(3). pp.134-141.
3) Yatigammana, S.K., Ileperuma, O.A. and Perera, M.B.U., 2011. Water pollution due to a harmful algal bloom: a preliminary study from two drinking water reservoirs in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 39(1). pp.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 5 July 2022

Tuesday, 26 July 2022

Commonwealth War Cemetery (Borella)

Borella Commonwealth War Cemetery
Borella Commonwealth War Cemetery (Sinhala: බොරැල්ල පොදුරාජ්‍ය මණ්ඩලීය යුද සුසාන භූමිය) is a part of the Borella Burial Ground (or Kanatte Cemetery) situated in Borella in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. It has been established to honour the Commonwealth servicemen who died during World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945).

Sri Lanka in World Wars
Sri Lanka in the First World War
World War I centred in Europe began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon, as a part of the British Empire, offered the service of approximately 2000 volunteers from the Ceylon Defence Force, and 442 among them did not survive. Their names are presently found recorded in the Cenotaph War Memorial in the Colombo Public Library premises. The closest fighting to Sri Lanka took place in the Bay of Bengal, where an Australian warship sank a German cruiser.

Sri Lanka in the Second World War
World War II was begun on 1 September 1939 and lasted till 2 September 1945. The two naval bases in Colombo and Trincomalee in Sri Lanka were attacked by Japan after the fall of Singapore and the Netherlands East Indies. The port at Colombo was bombed by them on 5 April 1942 while the port at Trincomalee was attacked on 9 April the same year. The destroyer Tenedos (under refitting) and the armed merchant cruiser Hector (under repair) that were in Colombo harbour were sunk and the quays and workshops there were damaged by the attackers. Also, the carrier Hermes, the destroyer Vampire, the corvette Hollyhock, a tanker and a fleet auxiliary were sunk off the Trincomalee coast.

War graves in Sri Lanka
There are over 2,000 World War burials in Sri Lanka. They include those who were killed in the attacks of April 1942, garrison deaths and casualties from formations which underwent jungle warfare training on the island before proceeding to Burma (present Myanmar).

Borella War Graves
The cemetery contains a Commonwealth War Graves Plot and a number of additional war graves dispersed around the site. It has been established to honour the Commonwealth servicemen who died during World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945). Presently, there are over 60 (WWI) and nearly 300 (WWII) tombstones at the site. Of them, 4 casualties of WWII have not been identified.

See also

Attribution
1) 20151005_114059 by Damitha K Tennakoon is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Location Map
This page was last updated on 26 July 2022

Monday, 25 July 2022

Jawatta Cemetery

Jawatta Cemetery
Jawatta Cemetery (Sinhala: ජාවත්ත සුසාන භූමිය), also known as Liveramentu Cemetery, is a burial ground located in Jawatta in Colombo District, Sri Lanka.

History
A church site converted into a cemetery site
As is revealed by the Portuguese reports (Portuguese Ceylon: 1597-1658 A.D.), the present cemetery is situated on the site of a Portuguese church dedicated to the Virgin Mary, the Virgin of Good Deliverance [(Liveramentu) Denham, 1912; Rajapakshe et al., 2018]. It is said that the miraculous statue of this shrine was purified using the water taken from the well located at the site (Rajapakshe et al., 2018). However, this church was completely destroyed during the Dutch Period [(1640-1796 A.D.) Rajapakshe et al., 2018].

The old well
Although the church was destroyed, the remains of the church well are still found at the present cemetery site. The well is about 30 ft deep and its upper part is square in shape while the bottom is circular in shape (Rajapakshe et al., 2018). To collect water by going to the bottom of the well, there had been a flight of steps made of Kabok (laterite) stone (Rajapakshe et al., 2018). Some coins belonging to the Dutch era have been discovered in the vicinity of this well (Rajapakshe et al., 2018).

Also, the evidence of an old foundation wall (probably a wall of the destroyed church) of a building has been discovered by archaeological excavations carried out at this site (Rajapakshe et al., 2018).

Adjoining cemeteries
Commonwealth war grave
The cemetery also contains a Commonwealth War Graves Plot at the left rear corner of the site. It has been established to honour the Commonwealth servicemen who died during World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945). It preserves 610 tombstones, a cremation memorial and memorial tablets containing the names of Commonwealth servicemen who died during the two wars.

Muslim Cemetery
This cemetery is located on the neighbouring Jawatta Jummah Masjid premises. Memorial plaques of 27 people who died in the First and Second World Wars are preserved here.

A protected site
The old tombstone slabs and the well in Jawatta Cemetery in the Divisional Secretary’s Division of Thimbirigasyaya are archaeological protected monuments, declared by a government gazette notification published on 8 July 2005.

Jawatta Cemetery
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See also

References
1) Denham, E. B., ed., 1912. Ceylon at the census of 1911: being the review of the results of the census of 1911. Colombo: Government Printer, Ceylon. p. 149.
2) Rajapakshe, S.; Bandara, T. M. C.; Vanninayake, R. M. B. T. A. B. (Editors), 2018. Puravidya Sthana Namavaliya: Kolamba Distrikkaya (In Sinhala). Vol. I. Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka). ISBN: 978-955-7457-19-2. p.45.
3) The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka: No: 1401. 8 July 2005.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 26 July 2022

Sunday, 24 July 2022

Commonwealth War Cemetery (Trincomalee)

Trincomalee Commonwealth War Cemetery
Trincomalee Commonwealth War Cemetery (Sinhala: ත්‍රිකුණාමළය පොදුරාජ්‍ය මණ්ඩලීය යුද සුසාන භූමිය; Tamil: திருகோணமலை பிரித்தானிய யுத்தக் கல்லறை) is a Commonwealth War Grave site situated near Uppuveli in Trincomalee District, Sri Lanka. It has been established to honour the Commonwealth servicemen who died during World War II (1939-1945).

Sri Lanka in World Wars
Sri Lanka in the First World War
World War I centred in Europe began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon, as a part of the British Empire, offered the service of approximately 2000 volunteers from the Ceylon Defence Force, and 442 among them did not survive. Their names are presently found recorded in the Cenotaph War Memorial in the Colombo Public Library premises. The closest fighting to Sri Lanka took place in the Bay of Bengal, where an Australian warship sank a German cruiser.

Sri Lanka in the Second World War
World War II was begun on 1 September 1939 and lasted till 2 September 1945. The two naval bases in Colombo and Trincomalee in Sri Lanka were attacked by Japan after the fall of Singapore and the Netherlands East Indies. The port at Colombo was bombed by them on 5 April 1942 while the port at Trincomalee was attacked on 9 April the same year. The destroyer Tenedos (under refitting) and the armed merchant cruiser Hector (under repair) that were in Colombo harbour were sunk and the quays and workshops there were damaged by the attackers. Also, the carrier Hermes, the destroyer Vampire, the corvette Hollyhock, a tanker and a fleet auxiliary were sunk off the Trincomalee coast.

War graves in Sri Lanka
There are over 2,000 World War burials in Sri Lanka. They include those who were killed in the attacks of April 1942, garrison deaths and casualties from formations which underwent jungle warfare training on the island before proceeding to Burma (present Myanmar).

Trincomalee War Graves
The cemetery was originally the Combined Services Cemetery. In April 1948, it was taken over by the Admiralty from the military authorities for use as a permanent naval cemetery. On the withdrawal of United Kingdom Forces from Sri Lanka it became the property of the Sri Lankan Government which later granted the Commonwealth War Graves Commission security of tenure in perpetuity. Presently, it is one of the nine cemeteries maintained by the Commission.

The cemetery preserves 314 tombstones of the casualties of the Second World War.

See also

Attribution
1) Trincomalee War Cemetery by AntonO is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Location Map
This page was last updated on 26 July 2022

Saturday, 23 July 2022

Commonwealth War Cemetery (Kandy)

Kandy Commonwealth War Cemetery
Kandy Commonwealth War Cemetery (Sinhala: මහනුවර පොදුරාජ්‍ය මණ්ඩලීය යුද සුසාන භූමිය) is a Commonwealth War Grave site situated in Kandy District, Sri Lanka. It has been established to honour the Commonwealth servicemen who died during World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945).

Sri Lanka in World Wars
Sri Lanka in the First World War
World War I centred in Europe began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon, as a part of the British Empire, offered the service of approximately 2000 volunteers from the Ceylon Defence Force, and 442 among them did not survive. Their names are presently found recorded in the Cenotaph War Memorial in the Colombo Public Library premises. The closest fighting to Sri Lanka took place in the Bay of Bengal, where an Australian warship sank a German cruiser.

Sri Lanka in the Second World War
World War II was begun on 1 September 1939 and lasted till 2 September 1945. The two naval bases in Colombo and Trincomalee in Sri Lanka were attacked by Japan after the fall of Singapore and the Netherlands East Indies. The port at Colombo was bombed by them on 5 April 1942 while the port at Trincomalee was attacked on 9 April the same year. The destroyer Tenedos (under refitting) and the armed merchant cruiser Hector (under repair) that were in Colombo harbour were sunk and the quays and workshops there were damaged by the attackers. Also, the carrier Hermes, the destroyer Vampire, the corvette Hollyhock, a tanker and a fleet auxiliary were sunk off the Trincomalee coast.

War graves in Sri Lanka
There are over 2,000 World War burials in Sri Lanka. They include those who were killed in the attacks of April 1942, garrison deaths and casualties from formations which underwent jungle warfare training on the island before proceeding to Burma (present Myanmar).

Kandy War Graves
Formerly known as Pitakande Military Cemetery, it was acquired originally by the military authorities, and was subsequently taken over by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission as a permanent war cemetery. Presently, it is one of the nine cemeteries maintained by them.

The cemetery preserves 203 tombstones; 151 Army, 32 Air Force, 16 Navy, 1 Merchant Navy, 1 National Fire Service and 2 unidentified. Of the burials, 107 are British, 35 East Africans, 26 Sri Lankan, 23 Indian, 6 Canadian, 3 Italians and 1 French.

Kandy Commonwealth War Cemetery
.
See also

Attribution
1) Kandy War Cemetery by AntanO is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
2) Kandy War Grave 1 by Lahiru k is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.5

Location Map
This page was last updated on 26 July 2022

Friday, 22 July 2022

Borella Cemetery

Borella Cemetery
Borella Cemetery (Sinhala: බොරැල්ල කනත්ත), also known as Kanatte Cemetery, is a burial ground located in Borella in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. Established in the colonial period, the cemetery is more than 170 years old. A part of it is recognized as the biggest commonwealth war cemetery in the country (Kuruppuarachchi & Madurapperuma, 2016).

History
The cemetery came into existence in 1866 and the first dead human being that was interred there was a widow of 55 years (Kuruppuarachchi & Madurapperuma, 2016). Since then, thousands of dead persons from different social backgrounds such as politicians, government officials, artists, literary personalities, military top brass etc., have been buried or incinerated here (Kuruppuarachchi & Madurapperuma, 2016).

Commonwealth war graves
Commonwealth war graves
The cemetery contains a Commonwealth War Graves Plot and a number of additional war graves dispersed around the site. It has been established to honour the Commonwealth servicemen who died during World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945). Presently, there are over 60 (WWI) and nearly 300 (WWII) tombstones at the site. Of them, 4 casualties of WWII have not been identified.

The cemetery
Borella cemetery is considered the largest general cemetery located in the Western Province and is maintained by the Municipality of Colombo (Kuruppuarachchi & Madurapperuma, 2016). Running to a length of 1.67 km, the total extent of the cemetery is 48 acres (Kuruppuarachchi & Madurapperuma, 2016). There are over 50,000 tombstones marking permanent graves. In addition to tombstones, a large number of cenotaphs and funeral vaults are also found.

The cemetery mainly has three different sectors (Kuruppuarachchi & Madurapperuma, 2016). The first sector serves the funeral requisites of Buddhists, Hindus and Christians and is maintained by the Colombo municipal council. The second sector is reserved for Anglicans and is run by the Anglican Church. The third sector is set apart for the Roman Catholics, which is maintained by the Roman Catholic Church.

Borella Cemetery
.
See also

Attribution
1) 20151005_113848 by Damitha K Tennakoon is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
2) 20151005_125605 by Damitha K Tennakoon is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

References
1) Kuruppuarachchi, K.A.J.M. and Madurapperuma, B.D., 2016. Floristic composition and biomass carbon sequestration of Borella Cemetery in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Plantation, Vol. 2. pp.181-187.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 26 July 2022

Thursday, 21 July 2022

Commonwealth War Cemetery (Jawatta)

Jawatta Commonwealth War Cemetery
Jawatta Commonwealth War Cemetery (Sinhala: ජාවත්ත පොදුරාජ්‍ය මණ්ඩලීය යුද සුසාන භූමිය) is a part of the Jawatta Burial Ground (or Liveramentu Cemetery) situated in Jawatta in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. It has been established to honour the Commonwealth servicemen who died during World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945).

Sri Lanka in World Wars
Sri Lanka in the First World War
World War I centred in Europe began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon, as a part of the British Empire, offered the service of approximately 2000 volunteers from the Ceylon Defence Force, and 442 among them did not survive. Their names are presently found recorded in the Cenotaph War Memorial in the Colombo Public Library premises. The closest fighting to Sri Lanka took place in the Bay of Bengal, where an Australian warship sank a German cruiser.

Sri Lanka in the Second World War
World War II was begun on 1 September 1939 and lasted till 2 September 1945. The two naval bases in Colombo and Trincomalee in Sri Lanka were attacked by Japan after the fall of Singapore and the Netherlands East Indies. The port at Colombo was bombed by them on 5 April 1942 while the port at Trincomalee was attacked on 9 April the same year. The destroyer Tenedos (under refitting) and the armed merchant cruiser Hector (under repair) that were in Colombo harbour were sunk and the quays and workshops there were damaged by the attackers. Also, the carrier Hermes, the destroyer Vampire, the corvette Hollyhock, a tanker and a fleet auxiliary were sunk off the Trincomalee coast.

War graves in Sri Lanka
There are over 2,000 World War burials in Sri Lanka. They include those who were killed in the attacks of April 1942, garrison deaths and casualties from formations which underwent jungle warfare training on the island before proceeding to Burma (present Myanmar).

Jawatta War Graves
The cemetery at Jawatta is one of the nine cemeteries maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission in Sri Lanka. It preserves 610 tombstones, a cremation memorial and memorial tablets containing the names of Commonwealth servicemen who died during the First and Second World Wars.

In addition, a memorial commemorating 28 Italian prisoners of war who died during 1939-1945 and who are buried in Sri Lanka, is found within this cemetery.

Cremation Memorial
This memorial is in the form of an urn-crowned stone pylon, with wing walls bearing the columns of names of 165 men of the Hindu faith who died during the Second World War while serving in Sri Lanka, and who were accorded the last rite required by their religion, committal to fire. The inscription written in English, Hindi and Sinhala above the names can be read as follows; 

1939-1945 IN HONOUR OF THESE SOLDIERS WHO DIED IN THE SERVICE OF THEIR COUNTRY AND WHOSE MORTAL REMAINS WERE COMMITTED TO FIRE

Memorial Tablets
These memorial tablets are made of Portland stone and are affixed to the low walls forming the entrance to the Commission's War Graves Plot. Names of over 345 men who died during the Second World War while serving in Sri Lanka, whose graves either could not be found or, if found, could neither be permanently maintained are mentioned on tablets. The dedicatory inscription which is in three languages, English, Hindi and Sinhala can be read as follows; 

1939-1945 THE OFFICERS AND MEN WHOSE MEMORY IS HONOURED HERE DIED IN THE SERVICE OF THEIR COUNTRY AND LIE BURIED ELSEWHERE IN SRI LANKA

Muslim Cemetery
This cemetery is located on the neighbouring Jawatta Jummah Masjid premises. Memorial plaques of 27 people who died in the First and Second World Wars are preserved here.

Jawatta Commonwealth War Cemetery Jawatta Commonwealth War Cemetery
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See also

Location Map
This page was last updated on 26 July 2022

Wednesday, 20 July 2022

Jawatta Jummah Masjid

Jawatta Jummah Masjid
Jawatta Jummah Masjid (Sinhala: ජාවත්ත ජුම්මා පල්ලිය) is a Muslim place of worship located in Jawatta in Colombo District, Sri Lanka.

History
The mosque was established at the premises of the Jawatta Burial Ground in 1941 to cater to the religious needs of Muslims in the area. This event was announced in the "Times of Ceylon" newspaper published on 22 August 1941.

Jawatta Muslim Cemetery
The Muslim cemetery is situated adjoining the mosque building. It is a Muhammadan cemetery belonging to the Trustees of the Jawatta Mosque. A number of old and modern graves with memorial plaques made of stone or cement are found here. Some of them have writings in Arabic and English engraved on them. The Jawatta Arabic Inscription (now missing) may probably have been discovered from this cemetery ground.

Jawatte Commonwealth Muslim Cemetery
One of the Commonwealth War Graves in Sri Lanka is located on the premises of Jawatta Muslim Cemetery. Memorial plaques of 27 people who died in World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945) are preserved at the site.

Jawatta Jummah Masjid Jawatta Jummah Masjid
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See also

Location Map
This page was last updated on 26 July 2022

Tuesday, 19 July 2022

Kankasanthurai Cement Factory

Kankasanthurai Cement Factory
The Kankasanthurai Cement Factory (කන්කසන්තුරේ සිමෙන්ති කම්හල) is the first industrial cement manufacturing factory established in Sri Lanka (Perera et al., 2020). Located in Kankasanthurai in Jaffna District, the factory currently remains in a state of disrepair.

History
The factory was established in 1950 under the Department of Industries (Annual Report, 2012; Weerakoon, 2021). It was converted to a Public Corporation in 1956 under the provisions of the Government-Sponsored Corporations Act No.19 of 1955 and named Kankesan Cement Works (Annual Report, 2012). However, the plant was closed down in June 1990 due to the Sri Lankan civil war [(1983-2009) Annual Report, 2012].

Kankasanthurai Cement Factory
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References
1) Annual Report, 2012. Sri Lanka Cement Corporation. p.1.
2) Perera, K.D.A.S., Ranathunga, R.G.S.A., Keshani, Y.H.N., Asanka, K.A.L., Prabhamini, T.M.D.N., Piyathilaka, K.M.S.N. and Arachchige, U.S., 2020. Cement Industry in Sri Lanka. Journal Of Research Technology and Engineering, Vol 1. Issue 1. pp.16-27.
3) Weerakoon, D.K., 2021. Sustainable Use of Natural Capital: The Inconvenient Imperative. University of Colombo Review (New Series III), 2(2). pp.70-87.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 19 July 2022

Monday, 18 July 2022

Trincomalee Marble Beach

Trincomalee Marble Beach
Marble Beach (Sinhala: ත්‍රිකුණාමළය මාබල් බීච්) is a popular shoreline facing to Koddiyar Bay in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. 

Maintained by the Sri Lanka Air Force, the beach is popular among the locals as well as foreigners as a place of safe bathing, swimming and snorkelling. The seawater is clear and calm hence the seabed is clearly visible. Lifeguards are available on the beach. A resort managed by the Sri Lanka Air Force is located at the site.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 18 July 2022

Sunday, 17 July 2022

Samanalawewa Reservoir

Samanalawewa Reservoir
Samanalawewa Reservoir (Sinhala: සමනලවැව ජලාශය) is situated in Belihul Oya in Ratnapura District, Sri Lanka. It is considered one of the most important hydropower-generating reservoirs in the country (Udayakumara et al., 2010).

History
Detailed designs for the Samanalawewa project were originally prepared in the late 1970s and a design review was undertaken in 1985 (Nagel, 1992). Work on the construction of the reservoir along with a 110 m high dam commenced in 1988 and was completed in 1992 (Udayakumara & Gunawardena, 2018; Laksiri et al., 2009).

The reservoir
Located at an elevation of 400 m mean sea level, the reservoir has been built by damming the Walawe Ganga river at a confluence with its tributary, the Belihul Oya (Arumugam, 1969; Udayakumara et al., 2010).  It extends in an area of 897 ha within Imbulpe and Balangoda Divisional Secretariat Divisions (DSDs), and its hydro power station is situated in the DSD of Weligepola (Udayakumara & Gunawardena, 2018).

Main parameters of the Samanalawewa dam & reservoir (Laksiri et al., 2009),
    Reservoir catchment area: 341.7 km2
    Normal high water level: EL460 m
    Minimum Operating level: EL424m
    Dam height: 110 m
    Dam body volume: 4.5 million m3
    Reservoir live storage volume: 218 million m3
    Spillway design discharge: 3,600 m3/s
    Power station capacity: 120 MW
    Average annual run-off: 561 million m3
    Design flood water level: EL460.7 m
    Dam crest elevation: EL463m
    Dam length: 530 m
    Reservoir gross storage volume: 278 million m3
    Reservoir dead storage: 60 million m3
    Spillway type: Gated ogee
    Average annual energy expected: 405 GWh

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Water leakage
The Samanalawewa project gained significant attention due to water leakage problems encountered during its initial trial impoundment (Laksiri, 2007; Laksiri et al., 2005). In October 1992 a flat water table was observed up to a distance of 2.5 km on the right bank of the dam and also, a landslip occurred approximately 300 m downstream of the dam generating serious concern amongst the local residents that the dam was failing and there would be a serious loss of life (Khaniya et al., 2020; Laksiri et al., 2005; Udayakumara & Gunawardena, 2018). As a result of these incidents, it was decided to reduce the water level of the reservoir to 430 m and this level is maintained until the present time (Laksiri, 2007; Udayakumara & Gunawardena, 2018).

Several remedial measures such as grout curtain and wet blanketing were undertaken to seal off the leakage but all the attempts failed (Laksiri et al., 2009; Udayakumara & Gunawardena, 2018). Therefore, the reservoir is still operating with a continuous water leakage of 1,800 litres per second (Laksiri, 2007; Laksiri et al., 2005).

No solution for water leakage?
Geologically, the reservoir is located in an area of karst within the Highland series of the Sri Lankan Precambrian complex comprised of crystalline metamorphic rocks (Laksiri et al., 2005). The area has been subjected to extensive folding, faulting and hydrothermal reactions and because of these complex geological conditions, finding the exact mechanism of leakage has become an impossible task, thus preventing successful remediation for water leakage (Laksiri et al., 2005). 

Samanalawewa Hydroelectric Project
Samanalawewa reservoir is the main element of the 120 MW Samanalawewa Hydroelectric Project. It consists of a water intake structure on the Walawe Ganga river (5.35 km long 4.5 m diameter headrace tunnel), 120 MW surface power station, two 132 kV transmission lines and 650 m long, open tail race canal releasing water back to Katupath Oya (Laksiri, 2007).

Samanalawewa Dam
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References
1) Arumugam, S., 1969. Water resources of Ceylon: its utilisation and development. Water Resources Board. p.405.
2) Khaniya, B., Karunanayake, C., Gunathilake, M.B. and Rathnayake, U., 2020. Projection of future hydropower generation in Samanalawewa power plant, Sri Lanka. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2020. pp.1-11.
3) Laksiri, L.K., 2007. Investigation of Water Leakage Mechanism in the Karstic Dam Site, Samanalawewa, Srilanka (Doctoral dissertation, PhD thesis, Saga University, Saga, Japan). pp.1-3,12.
4) Laksiri, K., Gunathilake, J. and Iwao, Y., 2005. A case study of the Samanalawewa reservoir on the Walawe river in an area of Karst in Sri Lanka. In Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst. pp. 253-262.
5) Laksiri, K., Gunathilake, J. and Iwao, Y., 2009. An Assessment of Leakage Ingress Areas Samanalawewa Reservoir – Sri Lanka. Geotechnical Journal, SLGS, Volume 4, Number 1.
6) Nagel, K.H., 1992. Limits of the geological predictions constructing the Samanalawewa pressure tunnel, Sri Lanka. Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology-Bulletin de l'Association Internationale de Géologie de l'Ingénieur, 45(1), pp.97-110.
7) Udayakumara, E.P.N. and Gunawardena, U.A.D.P., 2018. Cost-benefit analysis of Samanalawewa Hydroelectric Project in Sri Lanka: An ex-post analysis. Earth Systems and Environment, 2(2), pp.401-412.
8) Udayakumara, E.P.N., Shrestha, R.P., Samarakoon, L. and Schmidt-Vogt, D., 2010. People's perception and socioeconomic determinants of soil erosion: A case study of Samanalawewa watershed, Sri Lanka. International journal of sediment research, 25(4), pp.323-339.

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This page was last updated on 17 July 2022

Saturday, 16 July 2022

Muthuiyankaddu Kulam

Muthuiyankaddu Kulam
Muthuiyankaddu Kulam (Sinhala: මුතුඉයන්කඩ්ඩු වැව; Tamil: முத்துஐயன்கட்டு குளம்) is a reservoir situated in Oddusuddan in Mullaitivu District, Sri Lanka.

History
The tank was earlier known as Muthu Rayankaddu Kulam and has been referred to as "Man Malai" by Henry Parker in Sessional Paper XLVIII of 1886 (Arumugam, 1969). Restoration works of the tank were commenced in 1959 (Arumugam, 1969).

The reservoir
The reservoir has been built by damming the waters of Per Aru river (Arumugam, 1969). The bund is about 5,850 ft. long and the water extends in an area of about 3,100 acres at its full supply level (Arumugam, 1969). Storage capacity is 41,000 ac. ft. (Arumugam, 1969). The anicut is 18 ft. thick, 15 ft. high and over 200 ft. in length (Arumugam, 1969). The reservoir has one spill and two sluices (Arumugam, 1969). 

References
1) Arumugam, S., 1969. Water resources of Ceylon: its utilisation and development. Water Resources Board. p.279.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 16 July 2022

Friday, 15 July 2022

Malayadi Wewa

Malayadi Wewa
Malayadi Wewa (Sinhala: මලයාඩි වැව) is a reservoir situated in Damana village near Hingurana in Ampara District, Sri Lanka.

History
The tank is a new work constructed in the period of 1959-1961 by the Gal Oya Development Board (Arumugam, 1969).

The reservoir
The bund of the reservoir is about 1 mile long and the water is extending in an area of about 580 acres at its full supply level (Arumugam, 1969). Storage capacity is 7,300 ac. ft. (Arumugam, 1969). It has one spill and no sluice provided (Arumugam, 1969). 

References
1) Arumugam, S., 1969. Water resources of Ceylon: its utilisation and development. Water Resources Board. p.117.

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This page was last updated on 15 July 2022

Thursday, 14 July 2022

LTTE Destroyed Water Tower (Kilinochchi)

Kilinochchi Destroyed Water Tower
LTTE Destroyed Water Tower was a war monument located in Kilinochchi town, Sri Lanka. The tower was bombed and fallen down in 2009 by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a militant group designated as a terrorist organization by 32 countries.

Located on the A9 highway, Kilinochchi was the former administrative capital of the LTTE (Hyndman & Amarasingam, 2014). In December 2008, as the Sri Lankan armed forces launched heavy attacks on Kilinochchi, the LTTE decided to destroy the water tower before they fled the town (Hyndman & Amarasingam, 2014). Accordingly, the tower was destroyed by them on 2 January 2009 when government forces successfully took the control of Kilinochchi town.

LTTE was finally defeated by the government forces in May 2009 ending the 26 years long Sri Lanka Civil War. After that, the site of the fallen water tower was transformed into a fully-fledged tourist site, equipped with a plaque and a souvenir store (Hyndman & Amarasingam, 2014). However, the remains of the tower were removed in order to obtain space for a water supply and sanitation improvement project that commenced in 2020 by the Department of Water Supply.

See also

References
1) Hyndman, J. and Amarasingam, A., 2014. Touring “Terrorism”: Landscapes of Memory in Post‐War Sri Lanka. Geography Compass, 8(8), pp.560-575. 

Location Map
This page was last updated on 14 July 2022
For a complete tourist map follow this link: Lankapradeepa Tourist Map

Wednesday, 13 July 2022

Pulun Ella Falls

Pulun Ella Falls
Pulun Ella Falls (Sinhala: පුලුන් ඇල්ල) is a waterfall located in Pathakada village near Pelmadulla in Ratnapura District, Sri Lanka.

The fall can be reached after a small hike from the road. At the bottom of the fall is a small natural pool of which the depth varies from 5 ft to more than 12 ft.

Location Map
This page was last updated on 13 July 2022
For a complete tourist map follow this link: Lankapradeepa Tourist Map

Tuesday, 12 July 2022

Uduwaka Dunumala Ella Falls

Uduwaka Dunumala Ella Falls
Dunumala Ella Falls or Uduwaka Ella Falls (Sinhala: උඩුවක දුනුමාල ඇල්ල) is a waterfall located in Uduwaka village in Kegalle District, Sri Lanka.

The fall can be reached after a small hike of about 500 m from the road. It cascades from the top into three sections and at the bottom is a small basin-shaped natural pool. The place is popular among travellers as a safe spot for bathing.

Uduwaka Dunumala Ella Falls
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Location Map
This page was last updated on 12 July 2022
For a complete tourist map follow this link: Lankapradeepa Tourist Map

Monday, 11 July 2022

Muthu Mandapam, Vellore

Muthu Mandapam
Muthu Mandapam is a memorial situated on the banks of the Palar river in Vellore, India. It has been built by the Tamil Nadu Government to honour King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha (1798-1815 A.D.), the last ruler of Sri Lanka (Rajalakshmi & Yoganandham, 2020). The tomb of Rajasinha along with the tombs of seven of his family members stands inside this pearl-shaped memorial house erected in 1990.

History
Sri Vikrama Rajasingha was the last of the four kings of the Nayak dynasty (Telugu origin) of the Kandyan Kingdom. He succeeded his uncle King Sri Rajadhi Rajasinha (1781-1798 A.D.) in 1798 at the age of eighteen. He ruled Kandy until he was deposed by the British government under the terms of the Kandyan Convention signed on 2 March 1815 between the British Governor of Ceylon Sir Robert Brownrigg (1812-1820 A.D.) and the chiefs of the Kandyan Kingdom.

Rajasinha surrendered to Brownrigg at Bomure on 18 February 1815 while he was hiding in a house at Udapitivala in Kandy (Abeyawardana, 2004). He was brought to Colombo and temporarily imprisoned in A House in the Fort Area. On 24 January 1816, under the supervision of Captain O'Brien, the king, his queens and others were deported to Vellore in Madras (India) through the ship H.M.S. Cornwallis. 

Rajasinha was kept as a royal prisoner at the Vellore Fort for 17 years with his family members (Rajalakshmi & Yoganandham, 2020). There he lived on a small allowance (Privy Purse) given to him by the British colonial administration. Rajasinha died on 30 January 1832, aged 52 years. His body was cremated on the banks of Palar River which is presently known as Muthu Mandapam.

References
1) Abeyawardana, H.A.P., 2004. Heritage of Kandurata: Major natural, cultural and historic sites. Colombo: The Central Bank of Sri Lanka. pp.107-108.
2) Rajalakshmi, R. and Yoganandham, G., 2020. Dalits Empowerment in Tamil Nadu-A Historical Perspectives. Lulu. com. p.210.
 
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This page was last updated on 11 July 2022